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      Equivalent Circuit for Magnetoelectric Read and Write

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          Abstract

          We describe an equivalent circuit model applicable to a wide variety of magnetoelectric phenomena and use SPICE simulations to benchmark this model against experimental data. We use this model to suggest a different mode of operation where the "1" and "0'" states are not represented by states with net magnetization (like \(m_x\), \(m_y\) or \(m_z\)) but by different easy axes, quantitatively described by (\(m_x^2 - m_y^2\)) which switches from "0" to "1" through the write voltage. This change is directly detected as a read signal through the inverse effect. The use of (\(m_x^2 - m_y^2\)) to represent a bit is a radical departure from the standard convention of using the magnetization (\(m\)) to represent information. We then show how the equivalent circuit can be used to build a device exhibiting tunable randomness and suggest possibilities for extending it to non-volatile memory with read and write capabilities, without the use of external magnetic fields or magnetic tunnel junctions.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Use of negative capacitance to provide voltage amplification for low power nanoscale devices.

          It is well-known that conventional field effect transistors (FETs) require a change in the channel potential of at least 60 mV at 300 K to effect a change in the current by a factor of 10, and this minimum subthreshold slope S puts a fundamental lower limit on the operating voltage and hence the power dissipation in standard FET-based switches. Here, we suggest that by replacing the standard insulator with a ferroelectric insulator of the right thickness it should be possible to implement a step-up voltage transformer that will amplify the gate voltage thus leading to values of S lower than 60 mV/decade and enabling low voltage/low power operation. The voltage transformer action can be understood intuitively as the result of an effective negative capacitance provided by the ferroelectric capacitor that arises from an internal positive feedback that in principle could be obtained from other microscopic mechanisms as well. Unlike other proposals to reduce S, this involves no change in the basic physics of the FET and thus does not affect its current drive or impose other restrictions.
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            Deterministic switching of ferromagnetism at room temperature using an electric field.

             J Heron,  J Bosse,  J. He (2014)
            The technological appeal of multiferroics is the ability to control magnetism with electric field. For devices to be useful, such control must be achieved at room temperature. The only single-phase multiferroic material exhibiting unambiguous magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature is BiFeO3 (refs 4 and 5). Its weak ferromagnetism arises from the canting of the antiferromagnetically aligned spins by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction. Prior theory considered the symmetry of the thermodynamic ground state and concluded that direct 180-degree switching of the DM vector by the ferroelectric polarization was forbidden. Instead, we examined the kinetics of the switching process, something not considered previously in theoretical work. Here we show a deterministic reversal of the DM vector and canted moment using an electric field at room temperature. First-principles calculations reveal that the switching kinetics favours a two-step switching process. In each step the DM vector and polarization are coupled and 180-degree deterministic switching of magnetization hence becomes possible, in agreement with experimental observation. We exploit this switching to demonstrate energy-efficient control of a spin-valve device at room temperature. The energy per unit area required is approximately an order of magnitude less than that needed for spin-transfer torque switching. Given that the DM interaction is fundamental to single-phase multiferroics and magnetoelectrics, our results suggest ways to engineer magnetoelectric switching and tailor technologically pertinent functionality for nanometre-scale, low-energy-consumption, non-volatile magnetoelectronics.
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              Electric-field-induced magnetic easy-axis reorientation in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric layered heterostructures

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                29 October 2017
                1710.10700

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                6 pages, 4 figures
                cond-mat.mes-hall

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