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      The microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, regulate colonic Treg cell homeostasis.

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          Abstract

          Regulatory T cells (Tregs) that express the transcription factor Foxp3 are critical for regulating intestinal inflammation. Candidate microbe approaches have identified bacterial species and strain-specific molecules that can affect intestinal immune responses, including species that modulate Treg responses. Because neither all humans nor mice harbor the same bacterial strains, we posited that more prevalent factors exist that regulate the number and function of colonic Tregs. We determined that short-chain fatty acids, gut microbiota-derived bacterial fermentation products, regulate the size and function of the colonic Treg pool and protect against colitis in a Ffar2-dependent manner in mice. Our study reveals that a class of abundant microbial metabolites underlies adaptive immune microbiota coadaptation and promotes colonic homeostasis and health.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Science
          Science (New York, N.Y.)
          American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
          1095-9203
          0036-8075
          Aug 02 2013
          : 341
          : 6145
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
          Article
          science.1241165 NIHMS518169
          10.1126/science.1241165
          3807819
          23828891

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