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      Cardiac Index and Exercise during VDD/DDD versus VVIR Pacing in Children

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          Abstract

          Twelve children with a VDD/DDD pacemaker during 100, 125, 150, 200 ms atrioventricular delays and VVIR pacing, cardiac index was measured at rest and evaluated by endurance time during exercise stress test. The optimal atrioventricular delay, which provides highest cardiac index, was 100 ms in three, 125 ms in two, and 150 ms in four and 200 ms in three patients. VDD/DDD pacing with different atrioventricular intervals resulted in a significantly higher cardiac index (6.70 ± 3.06, 6.49 ± 2.51, 6.15 ± 2.35, 6.37 ± 2.69 l/min/m<sup>2</sup>, respectively) than VVIR pacing (5.25 ± 2.39 l/min/m<sup>2</sup>) at the rest. However, endurance times to treadmill exercise were similar in both the optimal atrioventricular delay (21.6 ± 3.7 min) and VVIR mode (22.4 ± 3.4 min) (p > 0.05).

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          Most cited references 17

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          Optimizing the AV delay in DDD pacemaker patients with high degree AV block: mitral valve Doppler versus impedance cardiography.

          In DDD-pacemaker patients with high degree AV block, Doppler echocardiography of transmitral blood flow can be used to find the individually optimal AV delay (AVO) for left heart AV synchronization. This study tried to validate a Doppler method (ECHO) recently proposed to optimize left ventricular filling by comparing it to stroke volume data derived from impedance cardiography (ICG). It should be further elucidated if optimizing the AV delay (AVD) by means of this method is superior to fixed AVD settings and which differential AVD (pace-sense-offset) should be programmed for atrially triggered (ATP) and AV sequential (AVP) pacing, respectively. AVO as measured in 53 patients showed a linear correlation between ECHO and ICG for both ATP (r = 0.66, P < 0.00001) and AVP (r = 0.53; P < 0.005). The mean deviation in AVO between ECHO and ICG was +/- 26 ms (ATP) and +/- 30 ms (AVP), respectively, with a tendency to longer AVDs with the Doppler method. ECHO limitations could mainly be attributed to: (1) restrictions of AVD programming options (which may be compensated for by slight modification of the proposal); and (2) to pathophysiological mechanisms that alter mitral valve dynamics. Optimization of the AVD by Doppler produced a stroke volume that was significantly higher (19%) than with a fixed AVD (150 ms in ATP; 200 ms in AVP). There was a wide scatter in pace-sense-offsets between-7 and 134 ms, which was reflected by both methods. It is concluded that AVO determinations by ECHO are valid provided that methodological pitfalls and limitations caused by the disease are recognized. Tailoring AVD with respect to diastolic filling improves systolic function and is superior to nominal AVD settings. Fixed differential AVDs as offered by some manufacturers are far from being physiological. Thus modern pulse generators should offer free programmability over a wide range of AV delays.
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            Congenital complete atrioventricular block.

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              Toward physiological pacing: optimization of cardiac hemodynamics by AV delay adjustment.

               I Ovsyshcher (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                March 2007
                28 August 2006
                : 107
                : 3
                : 185-189
                Affiliations
                Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                95345 Cardiology 2007;107:185–189
                10.1159/000095345
                16940723
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 21, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Research

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