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      Single-Trial Mechanisms Underlying Changes in Averaged P300 ERP Amplitude and Latency in Military Service Members After Combat Deployment

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          Abstract

          Attenuation in P300 amplitude has been characterized in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as dementia, schizophrenia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether the attenuation observed in the averaged event-related potential (ERP) is due to the reduction of neural resources available for cognitive processing, the decreased consistency of cognitive resource allocation, or the increased instability of cognitive processing speed. In this study, we investigated this problem by estimating single-trial P300 amplitude and latency using a modified Woody filter and examined the relation between amplitudes and latencies from the single-trial level to the averaged ERP level. ERPs were recorded from 30 military service members returning from combat deployment at two time points separated by 6 or 12 months. A conventional visual oddball task was used to elicit P300. We observed that the extent of changes in the within-subject average P300 amplitude over time was significantly correlated with the amount of change in three single-trial measures: (1) the latency variance of the single-trial P300 ( r = −0.440, p = 0.0102); (2) the percentage of P300-absent trials ( r = −0.488, p = 0.005); and (3) the consistent variation of the single-trial amplitude ( r = 0.571, p = 0.0022). These findings suggest that there are multiple underlying mechanisms on the single-trial level that contribute to the changes in amplitudes seen at the averaged ERP level. The changes between the first and second assessments were quantified with the intraclass correlation coefficient, the standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable difference. The unique population, the small sample size and the large fraction of participants lost to follow up precludes generalizations of these measures of change to other populations.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability.

          Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among six different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n target are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability and the application to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed.
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            Updating P300: an integrative theory of P3a and P3b.

             John Polich (2007)
            The empirical and theoretical development of the P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) is reviewed by considering factors that contribute to its amplitude, latency, and general characteristics. The neuropsychological origins of the P3a and P3b subcomponents are detailed, and how target/standard discrimination difficulty modulates scalp topography is discussed. The neural loci of P3a and P3b generation are outlined, and a cognitive model is proffered: P3a originates from stimulus-driven frontal attention mechanisms during task processing, whereas P3b originates from temporal-parietal activity associated with attention and appears related to subsequent memory processing. Neurotransmitter actions associating P3a to frontal/dopaminergic and P3b to parietal/norepinephrine pathways are highlighted. Neuroinhibition is suggested as an overarching theoretical mechanism for P300, which is elicited when stimulus detection engages memory operations.
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              Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients.

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University , Bethesda, MD, United States
                2Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University , Bethesda, MD, United States
                3Department of Mathematics, Monmouth University , West Long Branch, NJ, United States
                4Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University , Bethesda, MD, United States
                5Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Uniformed Services University , Bethesda, MD, United States
                6Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University , Bethesda, MD, United States
                7Aquinas LLC , Berwyn, PA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Rolf Verleger, Universität zu Lübeck, Germany

                Reviewed by: Christopher W. N. Saville, Bangor University, United Kingdom; Werner Sommer, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany

                *Correspondence: Paul Rapp paul.rapp@ 123456usuhs.edu

                Specialty section: This article was submitted to Brain Imaging and Stimulation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front. Hum. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-5161
                25 October 2019
                2019
                : 13
                10.3389/fnhum.2019.00377
                6824216
                Copyright © 2019 Trongnetrpunya, Rapp, Wang, Darmon, Costanzo, Nathan, Roy, Cellucci and Keyser.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 72, Pages: 11, Words: 8004
                Categories
                Human Neuroscience
                Original Research

                Neurosciences

                combat trauma, ptsd, erp, p300, single-trial

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