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      Erratum to: Physical activities of Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): preliminary longitudinal case–control study historical evaluation of possible risk factors

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      Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders

      BioMed Central

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          The ethics statement in this article [1] incorrectly states that the study was undertaken before ethics approval was required for such research. Contrary to this statement, South East Scotland Research Ethics Service has confirmed that an NHS ethics committee was in existence at the time of the study during the 1990s and that ethics approval would have been required for the NHS aspects of this study. South East Scotland Research Ethics Service has advised that the study would most likely have been given a favourable opinion if submitted for ethics approval but are unable to give retrospective approval. Given the time when the study was conducted, the non-invasive nature of the study, the opinion of the South East Scotland Research Ethics Committee and the potential public health implications of the findings, the Editor and Publisher have decided to take no further action. In addition, there is an error in the reference list of this article [1]. The article cited as reference 19 should have been included in the reference list between references 3 and 4. The first paragraph of the introduction section should include a citation to the article listed as reference 19 to read: This paper reports a preliminary longitudinal study of the physical activities of children obtained historically for Patients with progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and Controls. For reasons given in Appendix I, this text describing the research is a full account of that previously presented [1–3, 19]. Appendix I should read: This paper provides a full account of that published privately in abridged form with one Table by the International Research Society of Spinal Deformities meeting at the University of British Columbia, Canada in 2004 [1]. The research led to a further publication by the writer [19].

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          Physical activities of Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): preliminary longitudinal case–control study historical evaluation of possible risk factors

          To our knowledge there are no publications that have evaluated physical activities in relation to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) other than sports scolioses. In a preliminary longitudinal case–control study, mother and child were questioned and the children examined by one observer. The aim of the study was to examine possible risk factors for AIS. Two study groups were assessed for physical activities: 79 children diagnosed as having progressive AIS at one spinal deformity centre (66 girls, 13 boys) and a Control Group of 77 school children (66 girls, 11 boys), the selection involving six criteria. A structured history of physical activities was obtained, every child allocated to a socioeconomic group and examined for toe touching. Unlike the Patients, the Controls were not X-rayed and were examined for surface vertical spinous process asymmetry (VSPA). Statistical analyses showed progressive AIS to be positively associated with social deprivation, early introduction to indoor heated swimming pools and ability to toe touch. AIS is negatively associated with participation in dance, skating, gymnastics or karate and football or hockey classes, which might suggest preventive possibilities. There is a significantly increased independent odds of AIS in children who went to an indoor heated swimming pool within the first year of life (odds ratio 3.88, 95% CI 1.77-8.48; p = 0·001). Furthermore fourteen (61%) Controls with VSPA compared with 9 (17%) Controls without VSPA had been introduced to the swimming pool within their first year of life (P < 0.001). Early exposure to indoor heated swimming pools for both AIS and VSPA, suggests that the AIS findings do not result from sample selection.

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            Scoliosis Spinal Disord
            Scoliosis Spinal Disord
            Scoliosis and Spinal Disorders
            BioMed Central (London )
            18 March 2016
            18 March 2016
            : 11
            [ ]Scottish National Paediatric Spine Deformity Centre, Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, EH9 1LF, UK
            [ ]Medical Statistics Unit, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK
            [ ]Centre for Spinal Studies and Surgery, Queen’s Medical Centre Campus, Nottingham, UK
            © McMaster et al. 2016

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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