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      Prevalence of Cancer in Membranous Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

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          Abstract

          Background: The association between membranous nephropathy (MN) and cancer has been well documented. However, the true prevalence and characteristics of cancer associated with MN have not been well described. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies was conducted to summarize the prevalence of cancer-associated MN as well as patient characteristics and types of cancer in this population. We used a random-effects meta-analysis model to estimate the prevalence of cancer. Results: We included 6 studies (n = 785). The estimated prevalence of cancer was 10.0% (95% CI, 6.1-14.6). The mean age of MN patients with cancer was 67 ± 7 years. The diagnosis of cancer preceded the diagnosis of MN in 20 ± 6.8%. Lung cancer was the most common type of tumor, accounting for 22 cases (26%), followed by prostate cancer (13 cases, 15%), hematologic malignancies (12 cases, 14%), colorectal cancer (9 cases, 11%), breast cancer (6 cases, 7%), and stomach and esophageal cancer (5 cases, 6%). Conclusion: The estimated prevalence of cancer in patients with MN is 10% (95% CI, 6.1-14.6). The vast majority of tumors associated with MN are lung and prostate cancer. Hematologic malignancies should also be considered as one of the potential cancers associated with MN. Our study was based on a largely Caucasian population; therefore, the findings might not be applicable to other populations.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Membranous nephropathy and cancer: Epidemiologic evidence and determinants of high-risk cancer association.

          The association between membranous nephropathy (MN) and cancer is often mentioned in textbooks but poorly substantiated, and the characteristics of cancer-associated MN are unknown. To address these questions, we studied a cohort of 240 patients with MN, among them 24 had malignancy at the time of renal biopsy or within a year thereafter. The incidence of cancer was significantly higher in these patients than in the general population (standardized incidence ratio 9.8 [5.5-16.2] for men and 12.3 [4.5-26.9] for women). The frequency of malignancy increased with age. At the time of diagnosis, clinical presentation did not differ between the patients with cancer-associated MN and those with idiopathic MN, but smoking was more frequent among patients with cancer. Analysis of renal biopsies revealed that the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the glomeruli was significantly higher in patients with cancer-associated MN (P = 0.001). The best cutoff value for distinguishing malignancy-related cases from controls was eight cells per glomerulus. Using this threshold led to a diagnosis of cancer-associated MN with a specificity of 75% and a sensitivity of 92%. In patients with cancer-associated MN, there was a strong relationship between reduction of proteinuria and clinical remission of cancer (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our study provides epidemiologic evidence of an excess of cancer risk in patients with MN. It also shows that age, smoking, and the presence of glomerular leukocytic infiltrates strongly increase the likelihood of malignancy in MN patients.
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            Glomerular diseases: membranous nephropathy--a modern view.

            Membranous nephropathy (MN) is an autoimmune disease usually associated with a nephrotic syndrome and it may progress to ESRD in the long term. Its etiology is often unknown (idiopathic MN), whereas other cases have a recognizable etiology (secondary MN). In idiopathic MN, the glomerular lesions are mainly caused by autoantibodies against a podocyte membrane protein, the M-type of phospholipase A2 receptor 1. The natural course of idiopathic MN is quite varied with spontaneous complete or partial remissions a relatively common occurrence. Patients with asymptomatic non-nephrotic proteinuria seldom progress and need only conservative management. Those with persistent full-blown nephrotic syndrome and those with declining renal function are candidates for specific treatment with any of several regimens. Cyclical therapy with alternating monthly intravenous and oral glucocorticoids combined with a cytotoxic agent can induce remission and preserve renal function in the long term. Cyclosporine or tacrolimus can induce remission, but relapses are frequent after the drug withdrawal. Mycophenolate mofetil monotherapy seems to be ineffective, but may be beneficial when administered together with steroids. The experience with adrenocorticotropic hormone, natural or synthetic, is limited to a few studies with short-term follow-up, but high rates of remission can be seen after prolonged treatment. A high rate of remission and good tolerance have also been reported with rituximab. Patients with moderate renal insufficiency may also benefit from treatment, but at a price of frequent and serious side effects. With these limitations in mind, idiopathic MN may be considered a treatable disease in many patients.
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              Paraneoplastic glomerulopathies: new insights into an old entity.

               P Ronco (1999)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                August 2014
                28 June 2014
                : 40
                : 1
                : 29-35
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Cooperstown, N.Y., and bDepartment of Pathology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, N.Y., USA; cDivision of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
                Author notes
                *Dr. Napat Leeaphorn, Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center and, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 1 Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326 (USA), E-Mail napat.leeaphorn@bassett.org
                Article
                364782 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:29-35
                10.1159/000364782
                24993974
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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