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      Rectal enema of bupivacaine in cancer patients with tenesmus pain – case series

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Rectal tenesmus pain in cancer patients most frequently appears in patients with colon cancer, and as a consequence of radiotherapy of the hypogastrium region. Treatment with opioids and adjuvant analgesics is often ineffective.

          Patients and methods: Here, we report on two female patients diagnosed with colon and ovary cancer, respectively, who had very severe tenesmus pain (numerical rating scale 8–10) despite using high doses of opioids, including methadone with corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and ketamine.

          Results: In both patients, bupivacaine was administered via a rectal enema. In the first patient, bupivacaine was administered at a dose of 100 mg 0.1% (100 mL), and subsequently 100 mg 0.2% (50 mL), leading to effective analgesia for 8 and 12 hrs, respectively. In the second patient, 100 mg 0.1% (100 mL) was initially administered, followed by 100 mg 0.2% (50 mL), leading to effective analgesia for 12 and 17 hrs, respectively, with only dull abdominal pain reported that was relieved by 100 mg IV ketoprofen and complete disappearance of tenesmus pain. Rectal bupivacaine administration did not cause neurologic adverse effects, heart function disturbances or decreased blood pressure. A volume of 50 mL was enough to cover a painful area in the colon. Initial bupivacaine concentrations in the blood serum did not exceed 50 ng/mL and eventually dropped to 20 ng/mL and below.

          Conclusions: Administration of 100 mg bupivacaine as a rectal enema is safe and provides effective analgesia, and this procedure may be conducted in hospital departments and out-patient clinics. Furthermore, this procedure in the case of pain recurrence, can be repeated, and by providing effective pain relief often allows time for the patient to be transferred to a specialized pain center.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Ketamine for chronic pain: risks and benefits.

          The anaesthetic ketamine is used to treat various chronic pain syndromes, especially those that have a neuropathic component. Low dose ketamine produces strong analgesia in neuropathic pain states, presumably by inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor although other mechanisms are possibly involved, including enhancement of descending inhibition and anti-inflammatory effects at central sites. Current data on short term infusions indicate that ketamine produces potent analgesia during administration only, while three studies on the effect of prolonged infusion (4-14 days) show long-term analgesic effects up to 3 months following infusion. The side effects of ketamine noted in clinical studies include psychedelic symptoms (hallucinations, memory defects, panic attacks), nausea/vomiting, somnolence, cardiovascular stimulation and, in a minority of patients, hepatoxicity. The recreational use of ketamine is increasing and comes with a variety of additional risks ranging from bladder and renal complications to persistent psychotypical behaviour and memory defects. Blind extrapolation of these risks to clinical patients is difficult because of the variable, high and recurrent exposure to the drug in ketamine abusers and the high frequency of abuse of other illicit substances in this population. In clinical settings, ketamine is well tolerated, especially when benzodiazepines are used to tame the psychotropic side effects. Irrespective, close monitoring of patients receiving ketamine is mandatory, particularly aimed at CNS, haemodynamic, renal and hepatic symptoms as well as abuse. Further research is required to assess whether the benefits outweigh the risks and costs. Until definite proof is obtained ketamine administration should be restricted to patients with therapy-resistant severe neuropathic pain.
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            Pain and inflammatory bowel disease.

            Abdominal pain is a common symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis). Pain may arise from different mechanisms, which can include partial blockage and gut distention as well as severe intestinal inflammation. A majority of patients suffering from acute flares of IBD will experience pain, which will typically improve as disease activity decreases. However, a significant percentage of IBD patients continue experiencing symptoms of pain despite resolving inflammation and achieving what appears to be clinical remission. Current evidence suggests that sensory pathways sensitize during inflammation, leading to persistent changes in afferent neurons and central nervous system pain processing. Such persistent pain is not only a simple result of sensory input. Pain processing and even the activation of sensory pathways is modulated by arousal, emotion, and cognitive factors. Considering the high prevalence of iatrogenic as well as essential neuropsychiatric comorbidities including anxiety and depression in IBD patients, these central modulating factors may significantly contribute to the clinical manifestation of chronic pain. The improved understanding of peripheral and central pain mechanisms is leading to new treatment strategies that view pain as a biopsychosocial problem. Thus, improving the underlying inflammation, decreasing the excitability of sensitized afferent pathways, and altering emotional and/or cognitive functions may be required to more effectively address the difficult and disabling disease manifestations.
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              Local anesthetic systemic toxicity.

              The practice of regional anesthesia has been revitalized of late with the popularization of ultrasound-guided techniques. Advocates must be vigilant for the effects of unintentionally high blood levels of local anesthetic. Systemic local anesthetic toxicity, though rare, is a potentially devastating occurrence. This narrative review summarizes the effects of local anesthetic toxicity. We highlight how these toxic effects have motivated the search for a safe and long-acting local anesthetic. We outline current prevention and treatment options and appraise an emerging therapy in light of unfolding evidence. A search of the English language literature was conducted using the PubMed database from the National Library of Medicine. Bibliographies of retrieved articles were used to retrieve additional articles. The advent of multiple safety steps has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of local anesthetic toxicity over the past 30 years. Rising plasma levels of local anesthetic lead to a progressive spectrum of neurological and cardiac effects. Seizure activity may herald the onset of myocardial depression and ventricular arrhythmias that are often refractory to treatment. In addition to specific measures, such as lipid emulsion therapy, general supportive measures are warranted, for example, Advanced Life Support Guidelines. Vigilance during the performance of regional anesthesia and immediate intervention at the earliest sign of toxicity improve the chances of successful treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                11 June 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 1847-1854
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Chair and Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences , Poznan, Poland
                [2 ]Department of Anaesthesiology, Józef Strus Multiprofile Municipal Hospital , Poznan, Poland
                [3 ]Laboratory of Quality of Life Research, Chair and Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences , Poznan, Poland
                [4 ]Chair and Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Poznan University of Medical Sciences , Poznan, Poland
                [5 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Gynecology - Obstetrics Clinical Hospital , Poznan, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wojciech LeppertLaboratory of Quality of Life Research, Chair and Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences , Osiedle Rusa 55, 61–245 Poznan, PolandTel/Fax +48 61 873 8303Email wojciechleppert@ 123456wp.pl
                Article
                192308
                10.2147/JPR.S192308
                6578571
                © 2019 Kowalski et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 31, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Case Series

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                analgesia, bupivacaine, rectal enema, tenesmus pain

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