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      Natural Products as a Potential Source of Promising Therapeutics for COVID-19 and Viral Diseases


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          A global pandemic has recently been observed due to the new coronavirus disease, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Since there are currently no antiviral medicines to combat the highly contagious and lethal COVID-19 infection, identifying natural sources that can either be viricidal or boost the immune system and aid in the fight against the disease can be an essential therapeutic support.


          This review was conducted based on published papers related to the herbal therapy of COVID-19 by search on databases including PubMed and Scopus with herbal, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, and therapy keywords.


          To combat this condition, people may benefit from the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants, such as increasing their immune system or providing an antiviral impact. As a result, SARS-CoV-2 infection death rates can be reduced. Various traditional medicinal plants and their bioactive components, such as COVID-19, are summarized in this article to assist in gathering and debating techniques for combating microbial diseases in general and boosting our immune system in particular.


          The immune system benefits from natural products and many of these play a role in activating antibody creation, maturation of immune cells, and stimulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The lack of particular antivirals for SARS-CoV-2 means that apitherapy might be a viable option for reducing the hazards associated with COVID-19 in the absence of specific antivirals.

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          Most cited references159

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          Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study

          Summary Background An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia associated with the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December, 2019, in Wuhan, China. Information about critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is scarce. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Methods In this single-centered, retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 52 critically ill adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of Wuhan Jin Yin-tan hospital (Wuhan, China) between late December, 2019, and Jan 26, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, as of Feb 9, 2020. Secondary outcomes included incidence of SARS-CoV-2-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and the proportion of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Findings Of 710 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 52 critically ill adult patients were included. The mean age of the 52 patients was 59·7 (SD 13·3) years, 35 (67%) were men, 21 (40%) had chronic illness, 51 (98%) had fever. 32 (61·5%) patients had died at 28 days, and the median duration from admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) to death was 7 (IQR 3–11) days for non-survivors. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were older (64·6 years [11·2] vs 51·9 years [12·9]), more likely to develop ARDS (26 [81%] patients vs 9 [45%] patients), and more likely to receive mechanical ventilation (30 [94%] patients vs 7 [35%] patients), either invasively or non-invasively. Most patients had organ function damage, including 35 (67%) with ARDS, 15 (29%) with acute kidney injury, 12 (23%) with cardiac injury, 15 (29%) with liver dysfunction, and one (2%) with pneumothorax. 37 (71%) patients required mechanical ventilation. Hospital-acquired infection occurred in seven (13·5%) patients. Interpretation The mortality of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is considerable. The survival time of the non-survivors is likely to be within 1–2 weeks after ICU admission. Older patients (>65 years) with comorbidities and ARDS are at increased risk of death. The severity of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia poses great strain on critical care resources in hospitals, especially if they are not adequately staffed or resourced. Funding None.
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            Structural basis for the recognition of SARS-CoV-2 by full-length human ACE2

            How SARS-CoV-2 binds to human cells Scientists are racing to learn the secrets of severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the cause of the pandemic disease COVID-19. The first step in viral entry is the binding of the viral trimeric spike protein to the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Yan et al. present the structure of human ACE2 in complex with a membrane protein that it chaperones, B0AT1. In the context of this complex, ACE2 is a dimer. A further structure shows how the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 interacts with ACE2 and suggests that it is possible that two trimeric spike proteins bind to an ACE2 dimer. The structures provide a basis for the development of therapeutics targeting this crucial interaction. Science, this issue p. 1444
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              Dysregulation of immune response in patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China

              Abstract Background In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and rapidly spread throughout China. Methods Demographic and clinical data of all confirmed cases with COVID-19 on admission at Tongji Hospital from January 10 to February 12, 2020, were collected and analyzed. The data of laboratory examinations, including peripheral lymphocyte subsets, were analyzed and compared between severe and non-severe patients. Results Of the 452 patients with COVID-19 recruited, 286 were diagnosed as severe infection. The median age was 58 years and 235 were male. The most common symptoms were fever, shortness of breath, expectoration, fatigue, dry cough and myalgia. Severe cases tend to have lower lymphocytes counts, higher leukocytes counts and neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR), as well as lower percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. Most of severe cases demonstrated elevated levels of infection-related biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines. The number of T cells significantly decreased, and more hampered in severe cases. Both helper T cells and suppressor T cells in patients with COVID-19 were below normal levels, and lower level of helper T cells in severe group. The percentage of naïve helper T cells increased and memory helper T cells decreased in severe cases. Patients with COVID-19 also have lower level of regulatory T cells, and more obviously damaged in severe cases. Conclusions The novel coronavirus might mainly act on lymphocytes, especially T lymphocytes. Surveillance of NLR and lymphocyte subsets is helpful in the early screening of critical illness, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19.

                Author and article information

                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
                Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
                15 April 2023
                15 April 2023
                : 2023
                : 5525165
                1Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA
                3Research Laboratory of Microbiology and Virology, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan
                4Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                5Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkey
                6Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Carlos H. G. Martins

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Soheila Bafandeh et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 1 December 2022
                : 19 March 2023
                : 24 March 2023
                Funded by: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
                Award ID: 69266
                Review Article

                Complementary & Alternative medicine
                Complementary & Alternative medicine


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