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      Electrical Resistance of Stainless Steel/Polyester Blended Knitted Fabrics for Application to Measure Sweat Quantity

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          Abstract

          Skin wetness and body water loss are important indexes to reflect the heat strain of the human body. According to ISO 7933 2004, the skin wetness and sweat rate are calculated by the evaporative heat flow and the maximum evaporative heat flow in the skin surface, etc. This work proposes the soft textile-based sensor, which was knitted by stainless steel/polyester blended yarn on the flat knitting machine. It investigated the relationship between electrical resistance in the weft/warp directions and different water absorption ratio (0–70%), different sample size (2 cm × 2 cm, 2 cm × 4 cm, 2 cm × 6 cm and 2 cm × 8 cm). The hydrophilic treatment effectively improved the water absorption ratio increasing from 40% to 70%. The weft and warp direction exhibited different electrical behaviors when under dry and wet conditions. It suggested the weft direction of knitted fabrics was recommended for detecting the electrical resistance due to its stable sensitivity and linearity performance. It could be used as a flexible sensor integrated into a garment for measuring the skin wetness and sweat rate in the future instead of traditional measurements.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Smart electronic yarns and wearable fabrics for human biomonitoring made by carbon nanotube coating with polyelectrolytes.

          The idea of electronic yarns and textiles has appeared for quite some time, but their properties often do not meet practical expectations. In addition to chemicallmechanical durability and high electrical conductivity, important materials qualifications include weavablity, wearability, light weight, and "smart" functionalities. Here we demonstrate a simple process of transforming general commodity cotton threads into intelligent e-textiles using a polyelectrolyte-based coating with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Efficient charge transport through the network of nanotubes (20 omega/cm) and the possibility to engineer tunneling junctions make them promising materials for many high-knowledge-content garments. Along with integrated humidity sensing, we demonstrate that CNT-cotton threads can be used to detect albumin, the key protein of blood, with high sensitivity and selectivity. Notwithstanding future challenges, these proof-of-concept demonstrations provide a direct pathway for the application of these materials as wearable biomonitoring and telemedicine sensors, which are simple, sensitive, selective, and versatile.
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            Highly Sensitive Wearable Textile-Based Humidity Sensor Made of High-Strength, Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Filaments.

            Textile-based humidity sensors can be an important component of smart wearable electronic-textiles and have potential applications in the management of wounds, bed-wetting, and skin pathologies or for microclimate control in clothing. Here, we report a wearable textile-based humidity sensor for the first time using high strength (∼750 MPa) and ultratough (energy-to-break, 4300 J g-1) SWCNT/PVA filaments via a wet-spinning process. The conductive SWCNT networks in the filaments can be modulated by adjusting the intertube distance by swelling the PVA molecular chains via the absorption of water molecules. The diameter of a SWCNT/PVA filament under wet conditions can be as much as 2 times that under dry conditions. The electrical resistance of a fiber sensor stitched onto a hydrophobic textile increases significantly (by more than 220 times) after water sprayed. Textile-based humidity sensors using a 1:5 weight ratio of SWCNT/PVA filaments showed high sensitivity in high relative humidity. The electrical resistance increases by more than 24 times in a short response time of 40 s. We also demonstrated that our sensor can be used to monitor water leakage on a high hydrophobic textile (contact angle of 115.5°). These smart textiles will pave a new way for the design of novel wearable sensors for monitoring blood leakage, sweat, and underwear wetting.
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              Glass Fibers with Carbon Nanotube Networks as Multifunctional Sensors

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Polymers (Basel)
                Polymers (Basel)
                polymers
                Polymers
                MDPI
                2073-4360
                25 March 2021
                April 2021
                : 13
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Shanghai International Fashion Innovation Center, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051, China; chenqing@ 123456dhu.edu.cn (Q.C.); rzheng@ 123456dhu.edu.cn (R.Z.)
                [2 ]School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China
                [3 ]The Institute of Modern Industrial Technology of SCUT in Zhongshan, Zhongshan 528400, China
                [4 ]The Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The HongKong Polytechnic University, Hongkong, China; jin-tu.fan@ 123456polyu.edu.hk
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: shul@ 123456scut.edu.cn (L.S.); fubailu@ 123456dhu.edu.cn (B.F.)
                Article
                polymers-13-01015
                10.3390/polym13071015
                8037120
                33806025
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                knit, electrical resistance, liquid sweat, hydrophilicity

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