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      Bringing ecosystem services into economic decision-making: land use in the United Kingdom.

      Science (New York, N.Y.)

      Agriculture, Models, Economic, Marketing, Great Britain, Ecosystem, Animals, Decision Support Techniques, Decision Making, Conservation of Natural Resources, Climate Change, Biodiversity

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          Abstract

          Landscapes generate a wide range of valuable ecosystem services, yet land-use decisions often ignore the value of these services. Using the example of the United Kingdom, we show the significance of land-use change not only for agricultural production but also for emissions and sequestration of greenhouse gases, open-access recreational visits, urban green space, and wild-species diversity. We use spatially explicit models in conjunction with valuation methods to estimate comparable economic values for these services, taking account of climate change impacts. We show that, although decisions that focus solely on agriculture reduce overall ecosystem service values, highly significant value increases can be obtained from targeted planning by incorporating all potential services and their values and that this approach also conserves wild-species diversity.

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          Most cited references 58

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          A new look at the statistical model identification

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            Global consequences of land use.

            Land use has generally been considered a local environmental issue, but it is becoming a force of global importance. Worldwide changes to forests, farmlands, waterways, and air are being driven by the need to provide food, fiber, water, and shelter to more than six billion people. Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and urban areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. Such changes in land use have enabled humans to appropriate an increasing share of the planet's resources, but they also potentially undermine the capacity of ecosystems to sustain food production, maintain freshwater and forest resources, regulate climate and air quality, and ameliorate infectious diseases. We face the challenge of managing trade-offs between immediate human needs and maintaining the capacity of the biosphere to provide goods and services in the long term.
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              Multimodel Inference: Understanding AIC and BIC in Model Selection

               K. Burnham (2004)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                23828934
                10.1126/science.1234379

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