12
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      A causal mechanism for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

      Nature Reviews Cancer

      Springer Nature

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In this Review, I present evidence supporting a multifactorial causation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a major subtype of paediatric cancer. ALL evolves in two discrete steps. First, in utero initiation by fusion gene formation or hyperdiploidy generates a covert, pre-leukaemic clone. Second, in a small fraction of these cases, the postnatal acquisition of secondary genetic changes (primarily V(D)J recombination-activating protein (RAG) and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-driven copy number alterations in the case of ETS translocation variant 6 (ETV6)-runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1)+ ALL) drives conversion to overt leukaemia. Epidemiological and modelling studies endorse a dual role for common infections. Microbial exposures earlier in life are protective but, in their absence, later infections trigger the critical secondary mutations. Risk is further modified by inherited genetics, chance and, probably, diet. Childhood ALL can be viewed as a paradoxical consequence of progress in modern societies, where behavioural changes have restrained early microbial exposure. This engenders an evolutionary mismatch between historical adaptations of the immune system and contemporary lifestyles. Childhood ALL may be a preventable cancer.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 128

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cancer etiology. Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions.

          Some tissue types give rise to human cancers millions of times more often than other tissue types. Although this has been recognized for more than a century, it has never been explained. Here, we show that the lifetime risk of cancers of many different types is strongly correlated (0.81) with the total number of divisions of the normal self-renewing cells maintaining that tissue's homeostasis. These results suggest that only a third of the variation in cancer risk among tissues is attributable to environmental factors or inherited predispositions. The majority is due to "bad luck," that is, random mutations arising during DNA replication in normal, noncancerous stem cells. This is important not only for understanding the disease but also for designing strategies to limit the mortality it causes. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

            Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia occurs in both children and adults but its incidence peaks between 2 and 5 years of age. Causation is multifactorial and exogenous or endogenous exposures, genetic susceptibility, and chance have roles. Survival in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has improved to roughly 90% in trials with risk stratification by biological features of leukaemic cells and response to treatment, treatment modification based on patients' pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics, and improved supportive care. However, innovative approaches are needed to further improve survival while reducing adverse effects. Prognosis remains poor in infants and adults. Genome-wide profiling of germline and leukaemic cell DNA has identified novel submicroscopic structural genetic changes and sequence mutations that contribute to leukaemogenesis, define new disease subtypes, affect responsiveness to treatment, and might provide novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets for personalised medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              IgH class switching and translocations use a robust non-classical end-joining pathway.

              Immunoglobulin variable region exons are assembled in developing B cells by V(D)J recombination. Once mature, these cells undergo class-switch recombination (CSR) when activated by antigen. CSR changes the heavy chain constant region exons (Ch) expressed with a given variable region exon from Cmu to a downstream Ch (for example, Cgamma, Cepsilon or Calpha), thereby switching expression from IgM to IgG, IgE or IgA. Both V(D)J recombination and CSR involve the introduction of DNA double-strand breaks and their repair by means of end joining. For CSR, double-strand breaks are introduced into switch regions that flank Cmu and a downstream Ch, followed by fusion of the broken switch regions. In mammalian cells, the 'classical' non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) pathway repairs both general DNA double-strand breaks and programmed double-strand breaks generated by V(D)J recombination. C-NHEJ, as observed during V(D)J recombination, joins ends that lack homology to form 'direct' joins, and also joins ends with several base-pair homologies to form microhomology joins. CSR joins also display direct and microhomology joins, and CSR has been suggested to use C-NHEJ. Xrcc4 and DNA ligase IV (Lig4), which cooperatively catalyse the ligation step of C-NHEJ, are the most specific C-NHEJ factors; they are absolutely required for V(D)J recombination and have no known functions other than C-NHEJ. Here we assess whether C-NHEJ is also critical for CSR by assaying CSR in Xrcc4- or Lig4-deficient mouse B cells. C-NHEJ indeed catalyses CSR joins, because C-NHEJ-deficient B cells had decreased CSR and substantial levels of IgH locus (immunoglobulin heavy chain, encoded by Igh) chromosomal breaks. However, an alternative end-joining pathway, which is markedly biased towards microhomology joins, supports CSR at unexpectedly robust levels in C-NHEJ-deficient B cells. In the absence of C-NHEJ, this alternative end-joining pathway also frequently joins Igh locus breaks to other chromosomes to generate translocations.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Nature
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                August 2018
                May 21 2018
                August 2018
                : 18
                : 8
                : 471-484
                Article
                10.1038/s41568-018-0015-6
                6986894
                29784935
                © 2018

                Comments

                Comment on this article