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      Fracture Resistance of Roots after Application of Different Sealers

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          Vertical root fracture inevitably leads to tooth extraction. Thus, root filling with obturating materials and sealers that can reinforce the tooth would be an ideal way to reduce fracture in root treated teeth. This study aimed to assess the fracture resistance of roots following the application of different sealers including Epiphany, iRoot sealer and AH-plus.

          Methods and Materials:

          Fifty extracted human single-canal premolars without caries, curvature or cracks were used in this study. Tooth crowns were cut to yield 13-mm-long roots. Five roots were put in the negative control group and were left unprepared. Forty-five canals were prepared using ProTaper rotary files up to F3 and were then randomly divided into three groups based on the sealer type ( n=15). The root canals were filled using cold lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha and AH-Plus sealer, gutta-percha and iRoot sealer and Resilon and Epiphany sealer, in groups one to three, respectively. The roots were then mounted in acrylic molds for fracture resistance testing and subjected to compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until fracture. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA.


          The mean fracture resistance was 673.38±170.42 N in AH-Plus, 562.00±184.68 N in iRoot, 708.03±228.05 N in Resilon and 592.59±117.29 N in the control group. No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups and the negative control group ( P=0.26).


          Application of AH-Plus, bioceramic and Resilon sealers did not change the fracture resistance of roots compared to that of unprepared root canals.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Time-dependent effects of EDTA on dentin structures.

          The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of EDTA on smear layer removal and on the structure of dentin, after 1 and 10 min of application. Six extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented to #60. Apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving a 5 mm middle third that was then cut longitudinally into two equal segments. Using 10 ml of 17% EDTA solution, halves belonging to the same root were irrigated for 1 and 10 min, respectively. All specimens were subjected to irrigation with 10 ml of 5% NaOCl. Then all the specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. The results showed that 1 min EDTA irrigation is effective in removing the smear layer. However a 10-min application of EDTA caused excessive peritubular and intertubular dentinal erosion. Therefore we suggest that this procedure should not be prolonged >1 min during endodontic treatment.
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            Effect of sodium hypochlorite on mechanical properties of dentine and tooth surface strain.

            The aim of this study was to test the null hypothesis that sodium hypochlorite irrigation of root canals does not alter the properties of dentine and contribute to the weakening of root-treated teeth. The effect of two concentrations (0.5%, 5.25%) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and saline on (i) the elastic modulus and flexural strength of machined dentine bars, and (ii) changes in strain of 'whole' extracted human teeth were evaluated. One hundred standardized plano-parallel dentine bars (> 11.7 x 0.8 x 0.8 mm) were randomly divided into the three groups, immersed for 2 h in the respective solutions and then subjected to a three-point bend test. Changes in strain of each of 10 teeth on cyclical nondestructive occlusal loading were measured using electrical resistance strain gauges bonded to the cervical aspects. Each tooth had its crown and enamel reduced and root canal prepared. These were irrigated sequentially in a series of four separate, 30-minute regimes; initial-saline, 0.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl and final-saline. The changes in strains after each irrigation regime were compared. There was a significant decrease in elastic modulus of the dentine bars immersed in 5.25% NaOCl compared with the saline group (P < 0.01). There was also a significant decrease in flexural strength of the dentine bars in the 5.25% NaOCl group compared to both the saline and 0.5% NaOCl groups (P < 0.01). The strain data from the nondestructive tooth loading tests revealed significant increases in tensile strain between the initial-saline and the final-saline stages (P < 0.01). Significant increases in compressive strains were also found between initial-saline and 5.25% NaOCl; and between 0.5% NaOCl and 5.25% NaOCl stages (P < 0.01). The null hypothesis was rejected, 5.25% NaOCl reduced the elastic modulus and flexural strength of dentine. Irrigation of root canals of single, mature rooted premolars with 5.25% NaOCl affected their properties sufficiently to alter their strain characteristics when no enamel was present.
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              Fracture resistance of roots endodontically treated with a new resin filling material.

              The authors evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth filled with either gutta-percha or a new resin-based obturation material. The authors prepared and randomly divided 80 single-canal extracted teeth into five groups: lateral and vertical condensation with gutta-percha, lateral and vertical condensation with the new resin-based obturation material, and a control group with no filling material. The specimens were stored in 100 percent humidity for two weeks, mounted in polyester resin and loaded to failure. The authors found statistically significant differences among the experimental groups (P < .05). The groups with the new material displayed higher mean fracture loads and the gutta-percha groups lower mean fracture load values than the control unfilled group. However, the differences were not significant. The groups with the new material displayed significantly higher mean fracture loads than gutta-percha groups independent of the filling technique used. Filling the canals with the new resin-based obturation material increased the in vitro resistance to fracture of endodontically treated single-canal extracted teeth when compared with standard gutta-percha techniques. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS; If other properties of the new resin-based obturation material compare favorably with those of gutta-percha for filling the root canal, it should be considered as a replacement for gutta-percha, as the results of this study indicate that it could provide enhanced resistance to tooth fracture.

                Author and article information

                Iran Endod J
                Iran Endod J
                Iranian Endodontic Journal
                Iranian Center for Endodontic Research (Tehran, Iran )
                Winter 2017
                : 12
                : 1
                : 50-54
                [a ] Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus , Tehran, Iran;
                [b ] General Dentist, Tehran, Iran;
                [c ] Statistical Consultant, Dental Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Farzaneh Afkhami, Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, Tehran, Iran. Tel: +98-21 55851151, E-mail: farzaneh_afkhami@yahoo.com

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Original Article


                ah-plus, bioceramic, epiphany, fracture resistance, iroot, resilon, sealer


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