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      Monte Carlo‐based investigation of absorbed‐dose energy dependence of radiochromic films in high energy brachytherapy dosimetry

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          Relative absorbed dose energy response correction, R, for various radiochromic films in water phantom is calculated by the use of the Monte Carlo‐based EGSnrc code system for high energy brachytherapy sources 60 Co , 137 Cs , 192 Ir and 169 Yb . The corrections are calculated along the transverse axis of the sources (1‐15 cm). The radiochromic films investigated are EBT, EBT2 (lot 020609 and lot 031109), RTQA, XRT, XRQA, and HS. For the 60 Co source, the value of R is about unity and is independent of distance in the water phantom for films other than XRT and XRQA. The XRT and XRQA films showed distance‐dependent R values for this source (the values of R at 15 cm from the source in water are 1.845 and 2.495 for the films XRT and XRQA, respectively). In the case of 137 Cs and 192 Ir sources, XRT, XRQA, EBT2 (lot 031109), and HS films showed distant‐dependent R values. The rest of the films showed no energy dependence (HS film showed R values less than unity by about 5%, whereas the other films showed R values higher than unity). In the case of 169 Yb source, the EBT film showed no energy dependence and EBT2 film (lot 031109) showed a distance‐independent R value of 1.041. The rest of the films showed distance‐dependent R values (increases with distance for the films other than HS). The solid phantoms PMMA and polystyrene enhance the R values for some films when compared the same in the water phantom.

          PACS number: 87.53.Jw

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          Most cited references 23

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          Update of AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report: A revised AAPM protocol for brachytherapy dose calculations.

          Since publication of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group No. 43 Report in 1995 (TG-43), both the utilization of permanent source implantation and the number of low-energy interstitial brachytherapy source models commercially available have dramatically increased. In addition, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has introduced a new primary standard of air-kerma strength, and the brachytherapy dosimetry literature has grown substantially, documenting both improved dosimetry methodologies and dosimetric characterization of particular source models. In response to these advances, the AAPM Low-energy Interstitial Brachytherapy Dosimetry subcommittee (LIBD) herein presents an update of the TG-43 protocol for calculation of dose-rate distributions around photon-emitting brachytherapy sources. The updated protocol (TG-43U1) includes (a) a revised definition of air-kerma strength; (b) elimination of apparent activity for specification of source strength; (c) elimination of the anisotropy constant in favor of the distance-dependent one-dimensional anisotropy function; (d) guidance on extrapolating tabulated TG-43 parameters to longer and shorter distances; and (e) correction for minor inconsistencies and omissions in the original protocol and its implementation. Among the corrections are consistent guidelines for use of point- and line-source geometry functions. In addition, this report recommends a unified approach to comparing reference dose distributions derived from different investigators to develop a single critically evaluated consensus dataset as well as guidelines for performing and describing future theoretical and experimental single-source dosimetry studies. Finally, the report includes consensus datasets, in the form of dose-rate constants, radial dose functions, and one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions, for all low-energy brachytherapy source models that met the AAPM dosimetric prerequisites [Med. Phys. 25, 2269 (1998)] as of July 15, 2001. These include the following 125I sources: Amersham Health models 6702 and 6711, Best Medical model 2301, North American Scientific Inc. (NASI) model MED3631-A/M, Bebig/Theragenics model I25.S06, and the Imagyn Medical Technologies Inc. isostar model IS-12501. The 103Pd sources included are the Theragenics Corporation model 200 and NASI model MED3633. The AAPM recommends that the revised dose-calculation protocol and revised source-specific dose-rate distributions be adopted by all end users for clinical treatment planning of low energy brachytherapy interstitial sources. Depending upon the dose-calculation protocol and parameters currently used by individual physicists, adoption of this protocol may result in changes to patient dose calculations. These changes should be carefully evaluated and reviewed with the radiation oncologist preceding implementation of the current protocol.
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            Radiochromic film dosimetry: recommendations of AAPM Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 55. American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

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              An efficient protocol for radiochromic film dosimetry combining calibration and measurement in a single scan.

              Radiochromic film provides dose measurement at high spatial resolution, but often is not preferred for routine evaluation of patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans owing to ease-of-use factors. The authors have established an efficient protocol that combines calibration and measurement in a single scan and enables measurement results to be obtained in less than 30 min. This avoids complications due to postexposure changes in radiochromic film that delay the completion of a measurement, often for up to 24 h, in commonly used methods. In addition, the protocol addresses the accuracy and integrity of the measurement by eliminating environmental and interscan variability issues.

                Author and article information

                J Appl Clin Med Phys
                J Appl Clin Med Phys
                Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                06 January 2014
                January 2014
                : 15
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1002/acm2.2014.15.issue-1 )
                : 351-362
                [ 1 ] Radiological Physics & Advisory Division Health, Safety & Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai 400 094 Maharashtra India
                Author notes
                [* ] a Corresponding author: Mishra Subhalaxmi, Radiological Physics & Advisory Division, Health, Safety & Environment Group, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai ‐ 400 094, Maharastra, India; phone: (91) 22‐25598653; fax: (91)22‐25519209; email: b.subwu@

                © 2014 The Authors.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 28, Pages: 12, Words: 4582
                Radiation Measurements
                Radiation Measurements
                Custom metadata
                January 2014
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.2.5 mode:remove_FC converted:17.11.2017

                brachytherapy, phantoms, energy response, monte carlo


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