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      Socioeconomic factors, psychological factors, and function in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain from rural Nepal

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          Both socioeconomic and psychological factors have been shown to predict patient function in samples of individuals with chronic pain in Western countries. However, little is known about their role as predictors of function in individuals with chronic pain from developing countries.


          The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between measures of socioeconomic factors (income, education) and psychological factors (catastrophizing and resilience) and measures of function in a sample of individuals with chronic pain from rural Nepal. In addition, we sought to evaluate the moderating effects of socioeconomic factors on the associations between the psychological variables and function.


          We interviewed 143 adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain from rural areas of Nepal to assess income, education level, pain intensity, catastrophizing, resilience, physical function, and depression. We performed two regression analyses to evaluate the direct and unique effects of the socioeconomic and psychological variables and pain intensity as predictors of patient function, as well as the moderating influence of income, education level, and pain intensity on the associations between the psychological variables and function.


          Education and income both predicted physical function, but only income predicted depression. In addition, pain catastrophizing, but not resilience, evidenced a direct and significant independent association with depression. Neither catastrophizing nor resilience made independent and significant direct contributions to the prediction of physical function. The association between resilience and physical function was moderated by pain intensity and income, and income (but not education or pain intensity) moderated the associations between both 1) resilience and depression and 2) catastrophizing and depression.


          The results suggest the possibility that cultural differences may influence the role that psychosocial factors play in chronic pain adjustment. These findings have important implications regarding how psychosocial pain interventions should be adapted by individuals in developing countries.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Fifteen Years of Explaining Pain: The Past, Present, and Future.

          The pain field has been advocating for some time for the importance of teaching people how to live well with pain. Perhaps some, and maybe even for many, we might again consider the possibility that we can help people live well without pain. Explaining Pain (EP) refers to a range of educational interventions that aim to change one's understanding of the biological processes that are thought to underpin pain as a mechanism to reduce pain itself. It draws on educational psychology, in particular conceptual change strategies, to help patients understand current thought in pain biology. The core objective of the EP approach to treatment is to shift one's conceptualization of pain from that of a marker of tissue damage or disease to that of a marker of the perceived need to protect body tissue. Here, we describe the historical context and beginnings of EP, suggesting that it is a pragmatic application of the biopsychosocial model of pain, but differentiating it from cognitive behavioral therapy and educational components of early multidisciplinary pain management programs. We attempt to address common misconceptions of EP that have emerged over the last 15 years, highlighting that EP is not behavioral or cognitive advice, nor does it deny the potential contribution of peripheral nociceptive signals to pain. We contend that EP is grounded in strong theoretical frameworks, that its targeted effects are biologically plausible, and that available behavioral evidence is supportive. We update available meta-analyses with results of a systematic review of recent contributions to the field and propose future directions by which we might enhance the effects of EP as part of multimodal pain rehabilitation. Perspective: EP is a range of educational interventions. EP is grounded in conceptual change and instructional design theory. It increases knowledge of pain-related biology, decreases catastrophizing, and imparts short-term reductions in pain and disability. It presents the biological information that justifies a biopsychosocial approach to rehabilitation.
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            Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia: predictors of chronic low back pain.

            By using a population-based cohort of the general Dutch population, the authors studied whether an excessively negative orientation toward pain (pain catastrophizing) and fear of movement/(re)injury (kinesiophobia) are important in the etiology of chronic low back pain and associated disability, as clinical studies have suggested. A total of 1,845 of the 2,338 inhabitants (without severe disease) aged 25-64 years who participated in a 1998 population-based questionnaire survey on musculoskeletal pain were sent a second questionnaire after 6 months; 1,571 (85 percent) participated. For subjects with low back pain at baseline, a high level of pain catastrophizing predicted low back pain at follow-up (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.8) and chronic low back pain (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.3), in particular severe low back pain (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.2) and low back pain with disability (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7, 5.4). A high level of kinesiophobia showed similar associations. The significant associations remained after adjustment for pain duration, pain severity, or disability at baseline. For those without low back pain at baseline, a high level of pain catastrophizing or kinesiophobia predicted low back pain with disability during follow-up. These cognitive and emotional factors should be considered when prevention programs are developed for chronic low back pain and related disability.
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              Preoperative anxiety and catastrophizing: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association with chronic postsurgical pain.

              Anxiety and pain catastrophizing predict acute postoperative pain. However, it is not well established whether they also predict chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether high levels of preoperative anxiety or pain catastrophizing are associated with an increased risk of CPSP. Electronic search databases included PubMed and PsychINFO. Additional literature was obtained by reference tracking and expert consultation. Studies from 1958 until October 2010, investigating the association between preoperative anxiety or pain catastrophizing and CPSP in adult surgery patients, were assessed. The primary outcome was the presence of pain at least 3 months postoperatively. Twenty-nine studies were included; 14 instruments were used to assess anxiety or pain catastrophizing. Sixteen studies (55%) reported a statistically significant association between anxiety or pain catastrophizing and CPSP. The proportion of studies reporting a statistically significant association was 67% for studies of musculoskeletal surgery and 36% for other types of surgery. There was no association with study quality, but larger studies were more likely to report a statistically significant relationship. The overall pooled odds ratio, on the basis of 15 studies, ranged from 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.20) to 2.10 (95% confidence interval, 1.49-2.95). Pain catastrophizing might be of higher predictive utility compared with general anxiety or more specific pain-related anxiety. There is evidence that anxiety and catastrophizing play a role in the development of CPSP. We recommend that anxiety measures should be incorporated in future studies investigating the prediction and transition from acute to chronic postoperative pain.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                17 October 2018
                : 11
                : 2385-2396
                [1 ]Department of Physiotherapy, Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences, Dhulikhel, Nepal, saurabsharma1@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Center for Musculoskeletal Outcomes Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand, saurabsharma1@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]School of Physiotherapy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand
                [4 ]Department of Physiotherapy, Grande International Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal
                [5 ]Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Saurab Sharma, Center for Musculoskeletal Outcomes Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand, Tel +64 204 137 2448, Fax +64 3 470 9680, Email saurabsharma1@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2018 Sharma et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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