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      Effect of Vitamin D 3 Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D, Lipids and Markers of Insulin Resistance in Obese Adolescents: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

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          Background/Aims: To determine the effect of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> supplementation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], lipid profile and markers of insulin resistance in obese adolescents. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, 58 obese adolescents (n = 58; 12-18 years of age) received either vitamin D<sub>3</sub> (2,000 IU/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Total 25(OH)D, fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured at baseline and following supplementation. Results: The trial was completed by 44/58 enrolled participants. At the end of the 12 weeks, total serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased to a modest degree (median 6 ng/ml) in the vitamin D-supplemented group (p < 0.001). Supplementation showed no detectable changes in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, homeostatic model of assessment index (HOMA-IR), lipids and highly sensitive C-reactive protein. Conclusions: 12 weeks of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> supplementation in obese adolescents with 2,000 IU once daily resulted in a modest increase in 25(OH)D concentration in obese adolescents, but did not affect the lipid profile and markers of insulin resistance and inflammation. Further studies with higher doses of vitamin D<sub>3</sub> and/or longer duration of supplementation are needed to understand if vitamin D<sub>3</sub> supplementation can impact lipid profiles and markers of insulin resistance and inflammation in obese children.

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          The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

          Altered vitamin D and calcium homeostasis may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND ANALYSES: MEDLINE review was conducted through January 2007 for observational studies and clinical trials in adults with outcomes related to glucose homeostasis. When data were available to combine, meta-analyses were performed, and summary odds ratios (OR) are presented. Observational studies show a relatively consistent association between low vitamin D status, calcium or dairy intake, and prevalent type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM prevalence, 0.36 (0.16-0.80) among nonblacks for highest vs. lowest 25-hydroxyvitamin D; metabolic syndrome prevalence, 0.71 (0.57-0.89) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. There are also inverse associations with incident type 2 DM or metabolic syndrome [OR (95% confidence interval): type 2 DM incidence, 0.82 (0.72-0.93) for highest vs. lowest combined vitamin D and calcium intake; 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for highest vs. lowest dairy intake]. Evidence from trials with vitamin D and/or calcium supplementation suggests that combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation may have a role in the prevention of type 2 DM only in populations at high risk (i.e. glucose intolerance). The available evidence is limited because most observational studies are cross-sectional and did not adjust for important confounders, whereas intervention studies were short in duration, included few subjects, used a variety of formulations of vitamin D and calcium, or did post hoc analyses. Vitamin D and calcium insufficiency may negatively influence glycemia, whereas combined supplementation with both nutrients may be beneficial in optimizing glucose metabolism.
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            Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

            Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been shown to correlate with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Small, observational studies suggest an action for vitamin D in improving insulin sensitivity and/or insulin secretion. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of improved vitamin D status on insulin resistance (IR), utilising randomised, controlled, double-blind intervention administering 100 microg (4000 IU) vitamin D(3) (n 42) or placebo (n 39) daily for 6 months to South Asian women, aged 23-68 years, living in Auckland, New Zealand. Subjects were insulin resistant - homeostasis model assessment 1 (HOMA1)>1.93 and had serum 25(OH)D concentration 25 microg (1000 IU)/d. The HOMA2 computer model was used to calculate outcomes. Median (25th, 75th percentiles) serum 25(OH)D(3) increased significantly from 21 (11, 40) to 75 (55, 84) nmol/l with supplementation. Significant improvements were seen in insulin sensitivity and IR (P = 0.003 and 0.02, respectively), and fasting insulin decreased (P = 0.02) with supplementation compared with placebo. There was no change in C-peptide with supplementation. IR was most improved when endpoint serum 25(OH)D reached > or = 80 nmol/l. Secondary outcome variables (lipid profile and high sensitivity C-reactive protein) were not affected by supplementation. In conclusion, improving vitamin D status in insulin resistant women resulted in improved IR and sensitivity, but no change in insulin secretion. Optimal vitamin D concentrations for reducing IR were shown to be 80-119 nmol/l, providing further evidence for an increase in the recommended adequate levels. Registered Trial No. ACTRN12607000642482.
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              The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults.

              We sought to compare the effects of combined calcium and vitamin D supplementation versus placebo on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults aged > or =65 years. A total of 314 Caucasian adults without diabetes received either 500 mg calcium citrate and 700 IU vitamin D(3) or placebos daily for 3 years in a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial designed for bone-related outcomes. In a post hoc analysis, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin sensitivity (estimated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]), plasma C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6, were measured at baseline and 3 years. The effects of combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on 3-year change in FPG depended on baseline FPG (P = 0.02 for interaction). Therefore, we conducted analyses separately in participants with normal fasting glucose (NFG) (FPG <5.6 mmol/l, n = 222) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, n = 92) at baseline. Among participants with IFG at baseline, those who took combined calcium-vitamin D supplements had a lower rise in FPG at 3 years compared with those on placebo (0.02 mmol/l [0.4 mg/dl] vs. 0.34 mmol/l [6.1 mg/dl], respectively, P = 0.042) and a lower increase in HOMA-IR (0.05 vs. 0.91, P = 0.031). In the NFG subgroup, there was no difference in the change in FPG or HOMA-IR between the two treatment arms. There were no differences in C-reactive protein or interleukin-6 between the two treatment arms in either subgroup. In healthy, older adults with IFG, supplementation with calcium and vitamin D may attenuate increases in glycemia and insulin resistance that occur over time. However, our findings should be considered hypothesis generating and need to be confirmed in randomized trials specifically designed for the outcomes of interest.

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                August 2014
                16 July 2014
                : 82
                : 2
                : 107-112
                aDivision of Pediatric Endocrinology, Park Nicollet, St. Louis Park, Minn., Divisions of bLaboratory Medicine and Pathology, cBiomedical Statistics and Informatics and dPediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., eDivision of Endocrinology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Peoria, Ill., and fSanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, S. Dak., USA
                Author notes
                *Seema Kumar, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Mayo East 16A, Rochester, MN 55905 (USA), E-Mail kumar.seema@mayo.edu
                362449 Horm Res Paediatr 2014;82:107-112
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 6
                Original Paper


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