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      Glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis are attenuated with 17beta-estradiol in the aging Dahl salt sensitive rat.

      Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN

      Animals, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Blotting, Western, Body Weight, Collagen Type IV, metabolism, Creatinine, Estradiol, blood, Estrogens, Female, Fibrosis, pathology, Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental, Immunohistochemistry, Kidney, Kidney Cortex, Kidney Diseases, Laminin, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2, biosynthesis, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9, Organ Size, Rats, Rats, Inbred Dahl, Transforming Growth Factor beta, Uterus

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          Abstract

          This study examined the effects of estrogen deficiency by ovariectomy (OVX) and 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) replacement (OVX+E(2)) on glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis and the mechanisms contributing to these changes, including expression of collagen type IV and laminin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in the kidneys of young (4 mo [4M]) and aged (12 mo [12M]) Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats maintained on a low-salt (0.1% NaCl) diet. While normal renal morphology was observed in the 4M rats in all treatment groups, moderate to severe glomerulosclerosis (glomerulosclerotic index [GSI]: 4M, 0.22 +/- 0.09 versus 12M, 1.43 +/- 0.17; P < 0.001) and cortical tubulointerstitial fibrosis (CTIFI: 4M, 0 versus 12M, 57.1 +/- 4.9; P < 0.01) was observed in the 12M rats. The severity of glomerulosclerosis and cortical tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the 12M group was augmented with OVX (GSI, 3.27 +/- 0.34; CTIFI, 74.4 +/- 9.2; P < 0.01 versus Intact at 12M) and attenuated with E(2) replacement ([GSI], 1.09 +/- 0.09; CTIFI, 49.2 +/- 6.8). In the 12M animals, OVX was also associated with increased deposition and expression of laminin (Intact, 228.1 +/- 6.7; OVX, 277.4 +/- 9.6 AU; P < 0.01), increased expression of TGF-beta (Intact, 85.0 +/- 23.0; OVX, 178.0 +/- 20.5 AU; P < 0.001), and decreased activity of cortical MMP-9 (Intact, 3.8 +/- 0.8; OVX, 2.4 +/- 0.6 AUC; P < 0.01). E(2) replacement opposed these effects (laminin, 229.9 +/- 6.2 AU; TGF-beta, 101.3 +/- 25.2 AU; MMP-9, 5.2 +/- 0.2 AUC). The severity of the disease in the 12M rats correlated with a modest decrease in creatinine clearance (Intact, 0.26 +/- 0.01; OVX, 0.22 +/- 0.01; OVX+E(2), 0.28 +/- 0.01 mg/min per 100 g) and increase in BUN (Intact, 20.3 +/- 2.1; OVX, 32.6 +/- 5.1; OVX+E(2), 24.3 +/- 2.4 mg/dl). The authors conclude that E(2) is renoprotective in the aging DSS rat by attenuating glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis.

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