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      Alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene catalyzed by modified clays

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          Abstract

          A natural smectite clay (STx-1, USA), was ion-exchanged with Al, Cr and Fe or pillared with the same cations. Samples combining these two treatments were also obtained. The prepared solids were characterized by X-ray fluorescence diffraction (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and N2 adsorption. The catalytic activity was evaluated by using the alkylation of benzene with 1-dodecene. XRF results showed an increase in the metal content, giving evidence that the metal was effectively exchanged or deposited over the starting material. Al- and Fe-pillared clays showed a significant increase of the surface area, but this was not observed for the Cr-pillared one. Ion exchanged clays showed similar surface areas to that of the starting clay. From XRD results, only the Al-pillared clay gave an increase of the d-spacing. All catalysts showed low conversions towards the product of interest, and this is perhaps attributed to lack of molecular accessibility in the clay gallery or that there are no strong acid sites able to catalyze the alkylation, but strong enough to induce 1-dodecene isomerization. Moderate conversions were observed (27% for the most active catalyst, Cr/ST-P-Al)

          Translated abstract

          Una arcilla natural esmectita (STx-1, USA) fue intercambiada con Al³+, Cr³+ y Fe³+ o pilareada con complejos de los mismos metales. También se prepararon arcillas pilareadas intercambiadas. Los sólidos fueron caracterizados por fluorescencia de rayos X (XRF), difracción de rayos X (XRD), análisis termogravimétrico (TGA) y adsorción de N2. La actividad catalítica fue evaluada usando la reacción de alquilación de benceno con 1-dodeceno. Los resultados de XRF mostraron un incremento en la cantidad del metal incorporado en las arcillas tratadas, lo cual indica que el catión intercambiado fue depositado sobre el material de partida. Los sólidos pilareados con aluminio o hierro, a excepción del pilareado con cromo, mostraron incrementos del área superficial. Las áreas superficiales de las arcillas intercambiadas fueron similares a la de la arcilla de partida. Los resultados de XRD mostraron un aumento del espaciamiento basal sólo para la ST-P-Al, producto de la expansión de las láminas. Los catalizadores mostraron bajas conversiones hacia el producto de interés, debido posiblemente a que no hay acceso de las moléculas a la región interlaminar o que los sitios ácidos no son lo suficientemente fuertes para catalizar la alquilación, pero si lo suficientemente fuerte para inducir la isomerización del dodeceno. Se observaron conversiones moderadas (27% para el catalizador más activo, Cr/ST-PAl)

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          Most cited references25

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          Preparation and catalytic properties of cationic and anionic clays

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            Clays and catalysis: a promising future

            A Vaccari (1999)
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              A study of the surface acidity of acid-treated montmorillonite clay catalysts

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rtfiuz
                Revista Técnica de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad del Zulia
                Rev. Téc. Ing. Univ. Zulia
                Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad del Zulia (Maracaibo )
                0254-0770
                August 2007
                : 30
                : 2
                : 143-150
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidad del Zulia Venezuela
                Article
                S0254-07702007000200005
                4ba251ad-8bab-4428-abe9-d639dafb6802

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0254-0770&lng=en
                Categories
                ENGINEERING, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

                General engineering
                clays,pillared clays,Alquilación,arcillas,arcillas pilareadas,intercambio iónico,Alkylation,ion-exchanged

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