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      Leukocyte Sequestration in Pulmonary Microvessels and Lung Injury following Systemic Complement Activation in Rabbits

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          Inflammatory reactions are associated with sequestration of leukocytes in the lung. Complement activation leads to accumulation of leukocytes in alveolar septa and alveoli, to lung edema and hemorrhage. Although in organs other than the lung leukocytes interact with the vascular endothelium only in postcapillary venules, alveolar capillaries are considered to be the site of leukocyte sequestration in the lung. However, pulmonary venules and arterioles have not been investigated systematically after complement activation so far. A closed thoracic window was implanted in anesthetized rabbits; leukocytes and red blood cells were stained, and the movement of these cells was measured in superficial pulmonary arterioles, venules and alveolar capillaries using fluorescence video microscopy before and 30 and 60 min after infusion of cobra venom factor (CVF). Erythrocyte velocity and macrohemodynamic conditions did not change after CVF infusion and were not different from the sham-treated controls. The number of sticking leukocytes increased significantly compared to baseline and control: by 150% in arterioles and in venules and by 740% in alveolar capillaries within 60 min after CVF infusion. The width of alveolar septa in vivo was significantly enlarged after CVF infusion, indicating interstitial pulmonary edema. At the end of the experiments, myeloperoxidase activity was higher in the CVF group, showing leukocyte sequestration in the whole organ. It is concluded that complement activation by CVF induces leukocyte sequestration in lung arterioles, venules and alveolar capillaries and leads to mild lung injury.

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          Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules in human disease.

          An effective host response to infection or tissue damage requires focal accumulation of leukocytes. Leukocyte adhesion to the vessel wall, a key step in this process, depends on the ordered expression of specific endothelial cell surface molecules. The endothelial molecules that support adhesion include selectins that recognize leukocyte cell surface glycoconjugates as well as members of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interact with leukocyte integrins. Although inflammation can occur with minimal damage to the vessel wall and surrounding tissues, control mechanisms sometimes appear to fail, and the inflammatory response itself becomes a significant clinical problem. In this review, we discuss endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules with particular emphasis on their expression and function in human disease. Pathophysiological processes presented include atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, acute lung injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and graft rejection. A more detailed description of the discovery and characterization of the key molecules appears in the antecedent article entitled "Endothelial-Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules".

            Author and article information

            J Vasc Res
            Journal of Vascular Research
            S. Karger AG
            August 1999
            27 August 1999
            : 36
            : 4
            : 289-298
            aDepartment of Anesthesiology and bInstitute for Surgical Research, University of Munich, Germany
            25657 J Vasc Res 1999;36:289–298
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Page count
            Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 45, Pages: 10
            Research Paper


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