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      Leukocyte Sequestration in Pulmonary Microvessels and Lung Injury following Systemic Complement Activation in Rabbits

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          Abstract

          Inflammatory reactions are associated with sequestration of leukocytes in the lung. Complement activation leads to accumulation of leukocytes in alveolar septa and alveoli, to lung edema and hemorrhage. Although in organs other than the lung leukocytes interact with the vascular endothelium only in postcapillary venules, alveolar capillaries are considered to be the site of leukocyte sequestration in the lung. However, pulmonary venules and arterioles have not been investigated systematically after complement activation so far. A closed thoracic window was implanted in anesthetized rabbits; leukocytes and red blood cells were stained, and the movement of these cells was measured in superficial pulmonary arterioles, venules and alveolar capillaries using fluorescence video microscopy before and 30 and 60 min after infusion of cobra venom factor (CVF). Erythrocyte velocity and macrohemodynamic conditions did not change after CVF infusion and were not different from the sham-treated controls. The number of sticking leukocytes increased significantly compared to baseline and control: by 150% in arterioles and in venules and by 740% in alveolar capillaries within 60 min after CVF infusion. The width of alveolar septa in vivo was significantly enlarged after CVF infusion, indicating interstitial pulmonary edema. At the end of the experiments, myeloperoxidase activity was higher in the CVF group, showing leukocyte sequestration in the whole organ. It is concluded that complement activation by CVF induces leukocyte sequestration in lung arterioles, venules and alveolar capillaries and leads to mild lung injury.

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          Endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules in human disease.

          An effective host response to infection or tissue damage requires focal accumulation of leukocytes. Leukocyte adhesion to the vessel wall, a key step in this process, depends on the ordered expression of specific endothelial cell surface molecules. The endothelial molecules that support adhesion include selectins that recognize leukocyte cell surface glycoconjugates as well as members of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interact with leukocyte integrins. Although inflammation can occur with minimal damage to the vessel wall and surrounding tissues, control mechanisms sometimes appear to fail, and the inflammatory response itself becomes a significant clinical problem. In this review, we discuss endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecules with particular emphasis on their expression and function in human disease. Pathophysiological processes presented include atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, acute lung injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and graft rejection. A more detailed description of the discovery and characterization of the key molecules appears in the antecedent article entitled "Endothelial-Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules".
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            JVR
            J Vasc Res
            10.1159/issn.1018-1172
            Journal of Vascular Research
            S. Karger AG
            1018-1172
            1423-0135
            1999
            August 1999
            27 August 1999
            : 36
            : 4
            : 289-298
            Affiliations
            aDepartment of Anesthesiology and bInstitute for Surgical Research, University of Munich, Germany
            Article
            25657 J Vasc Res 1999;36:289–298
            10.1159/000025657
            10474042
            © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 45, Pages: 10
            Categories
            Research Paper

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