Abstract This study inventoried and characterized the richness of galling insects based on gall morphotypes and their host plants in two Cerrado sensu stricto areas of Caetité municipality in Bahia State, Brazil, to aid the identification of galling insects and their host plants, as well as to contribute to the knowledge and conservation of local biodiversity. The survey was conducted in the Moita dos Porcos archaeological site and João Barroca Farm site, adopting the random walking methodology for sampling, during 12 months. We recorded 98 gall morphotypes on 42 plant species belonging to 36 genera and 22 families. Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae and Myrtaceae demonstrated the greatest richness of galls, and the Copaifera langsdorffii was the super-host species, with 16 gall morphotypes. Most galls occur on leaves, and may be globoid, glabrous, grouped, and are usually unilocular, and brown. The galling insects identified belonged to Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Eight plant host species and eight gall morphotypes were recorded for the first time in Cerrado areas in Brazil. The areas surveyed demonstrated high richness of gall morphotypes and host plants, evidencing the importance of studying and preserving different areas of the same biome.