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      Testosterone therapy has positive effects on anthropometric measures, metabolic syndrome components (obesity, lipid profile, Diabetes Mellitus control), blood indices, liver enzymes, and prostate health indicators in elderly hypogonadal men

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      Andrologia

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Relationship between testosterone levels, insulin sensitivity, and mitochondrial function in men.

          The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between serum testosterone levels and insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in men. A total of 60 men (mean age 60.5 +/- 1.2 years) had a detailed hormonal and metabolic evaluation. Insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2max)) and expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes in skeletal muscle. A total of 45% of subjects had normal glucose tolerance, 20% had impaired glucose tolerance, and 35% had type 2 diabetes. Testosterone levels were positively correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.4, P 25 kg/m(2) and a threefold higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome than their eugonadal counterparts (n = 50); this relationship held true after adjusting for age and sex hormone-binding globulin but not BMI. Testosterone levels also correlated with V(O2max) (r = 0.43, P < 0.05) and oxidative phosphorylation gene expression (r = 0.57, P < 0.0001). These data indicate that low serum testosterone levels are associated with an adverse metabolic profile and suggest a novel unifying mechanism for the previously independent observations that low testosterone levels and impaired mitochondrial function promote insulin resistance in men.
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            Fifty-two-week treatment with diet and exercise plus transdermal testosterone reverses the metabolic syndrome and improves glycemic control in men with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and subnormal plasma testosterone.

            Men with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) often have low testosterone levels. Elevating low testosterone levels may improve features of the MetS and glycemic control. In a single blind, 52-week randomized clinical trial, the effects of supervised diet and exercise (D&E) with or without transdermal testosterone administration on components of the MetS in hypogonadal men with the MetS and newly diagnosed T2D were assessed. A total of 32 hypogonadal men (total testosterone <12.0 nmol/L) with newly diagnosed T2D and with the MetS as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III and the International Diabetes Federation received supervised D&E, but 16 received it in combination with testosterone gel (50 mg) once daily (n = 16). No glucose-lowering agents were administered prior to or during the study period. Outcome measures were components of the MetS as defined by the Adult Treatment Panel III and the International Diabetes Federation. Serum testosterone, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, and the waist circumference improved in both treatment groups after 52 weeks of treatment. Addition of testosterone significantly further improved these measures compared with D&E alone. All D&E plus testosterone patients reached the HbA(1c) goal of less than 7.0%; 87.5% of them reached an HbA(1c) of less than 6.5%. Based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, 81.3% of the patients randomized to D&E plus testosterone no longer matched the criteria of the MetS, whereas 31.3% of the D&E alone participants did. Additionally, testosterone treatment improved insulin sensitivity, adiponectin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Addition of testosterone to supervised D&E results in greater therapeutic improvements of glycemic control and reverses the MetS after 52 weeks of treatment in hypogonadal patients with the MetS and newly diagnosed T2D.
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              Sex hormones, inflammation and the metabolic syndrome: a population-based study.

              Mild hypoandrogenism in men is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome, but the association with the metabolic syndrome itself using an accepted definition has not been described. Men with the metabolic syndrome were identified and testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were determined in a population-based cohort of 1896 non-diabetic middle-aged Finnish men. Calculated free testosterone and SHBG were 11% and 18% lower (P<0.001) in men with the metabolic syndrome (n=345, World Health Organisation definition). After categorisation by tertiles and adjusting for age and body mass index, total and free testosterone and SHBG were inversely associated with concentrations of insulin, glucose, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and CRP-adjusted ferritin and positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Men with free testosterone levels in the lowest third were 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-3.7) times more likely to have the metabolic syndrome in age-adjusted analyses, and 1.7 (95% CI 1.2-2.4) times more likely even after further adjusting for body mass index. Exclusion of men with cardiovascular disease did not alter the association. The inverse association of SHBG with the metabolic syndrome was somewhat stronger. Low testosterone and SHBG levels were strongly associated not only with components of the metabolic syndrome, but also with the metabolic syndrome itself, independently of body mass index. Furthermore, sex hormones were associated with inflammation and body iron stores. Even in the absence of late-stage consequences such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, subtle derangements in sex hormones are present in the metabolic syndrome, and may contribute to its pathogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Andrologia
                Andrologia
                Wiley-Blackwell
                03034569
                December 2017
                December 10 2017
                : 49
                : 10
                : e12768
                Article
                10.1111/and.12768
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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