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      Arterial Vimentin Is a Transglutaminase Substrate: A Link between Vasomotor Activity and Remodeling?

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: The transglutaminases (TG2 and factor XIIIa) may contribute to the stability of arteries by cross-linking a variety of substrates, including extracellular matrix proteins and protease inhibitors. The preferred substrates have never been determined, however. Methods: We used an amine donor, 5-biotinamidopentylamine, that is covalently linked to acceptor glutamine residues, to determine transglutaminase substrates in carotid endarterectomy tissue. Results: The incorporation of 5-biotinamidopentylamine was calcium dependent, resulting in the labeling of several proteins that were detected by streptavidin-peroxidase and purified over a monomeric avidin affinity column. A major band of 42 kDa that was eluted from the column was sequenced along with 2 additional bands (80 and 65 kDa), revealing an internal fragment of vimentin, transferrin and albumin, respectively. Vimentin dimers were detected in 5 out of 5 carotid plaque homogenates. Conclusions: Vimentin is a major arterial substrate for transglutaminases. It has previously been shown that TG2 activity and vimentin contribute to vasomotor activity of arteries. Furthermore, transglutaminases (both TG2 and factor XIIIa), as well as vimentin, regulate structural alterations (inward remodeling) that occur in response to low flow states. Transglutaminase-mediated vimentin dimerization produces a novel unifying pathway by which vasodilatory and remodeling responses may be regulated.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Flow-dependent remodeling of small arteries in mice deficient for tissue-type transglutaminase: possible compensation by macrophage-derived factor XIII.

          Chronic changes in blood flow induce an adaptation of vascular caliber. Thus, arteries show inward remodeling after a reduction in blood flow. We hypothesized that this remodeling depends on the crosslinking enzyme tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG). Flow-dependent remodeling was studied in wild-type (WT) and tTG-null mice using a surgically imposed change in blood flow in small mesenteric arteries. WT mice showed inward remodeling after 2 days of low blood flow, which was absent in arteries from tTG-null mice. Yet, after continued low blood flow for 7 days, inward remodeling was similar in arteries from WT and tTG-null mice. Studying the alternative pathways of remodeling, we identified a relatively high expression of the plasma transglutaminase factor XIII in arteries of WT and tTG-null mice. In addition, vessels from both WT and tTG-null mice showed the presence of transglutaminase-specific crosslinks. An accumulation of adventitial monocytes/macrophages was found in vessels exposed to low blood flow in tTG-null mice. Because monocytes/macrophages may represent a source of factor XIII, tTG-null mice were treated with liposome-encapsulated clodronate. Elimination of monocytes/macrophages with liposome-encapsulated clodronate reduced both the expression of factor XIII and inward remodeling in tTG-null mice. In conclusion, tTG plays an important role in the inward remodeling of small arteries associated with decreased blood flow. Adventitial monocytes/macrophages are a source of factor XIII in tTG-null mice and contribute to an alternative, delayed mechanism of inward remodeling when tTG is absent.
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            Small artery remodeling depends on tissue-type transglutaminase.

            Remodeling of small arteries is essential in the long-term regulation of blood pressure and blood flow to specific organs or tissues. A large part of the change in vessel diameter may occur through non-growth-related reorganization of vessel wall components. The hypothesis was tested that tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG), a cross-linking enzyme, contributes to the inward remodeling of small arteries. The in vivo inward remodeling of rat mesenteric arteries, induced by low blood flow, was attenuated by inhibition of tTG. Rat skeletal muscle arteries expressed tTG, as identified by Western blot and immunostaining. In vitro, activation of these arteries with endothelin-1 resulted in inward remodeling, which was blocked by tTG inhibitors. Small arteries obtained from rats and pigs both showed inward remodeling after exposure to exogenous transglutaminase, which was inhibited by addition of a nitric oxide donor. Enhanced expression of tTG, induced by retinoic acid, increased inward remodeling of porcine coronary arteries kept in organ culture for 3 days. The activity of tTG was dependent on pressure. Inhibition of tTG reversed remodeling, causing a substantial increase in vessel diameter. In a collagen gel contraction assay, tTG determined the compaction of collagen by smooth muscle cells. Collectively, these data show that small artery remodeling associated with chronic vasoconstriction depends on tissue-type transglutaminase. This mechanism may reveal a novel therapeutic target for pathologies associated with inward remodeling of the resistance arteries.
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              Cell surface transglutaminase promotes RhoA activation via integrin clustering and suppression of the Src-p190RhoGAP signaling pathway.

              Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a multifunctional protein that serves as cross-linking enzyme and integrin-binding adhesion coreceptor for fibronectin on the cell surface. Previous work showed activation of small GTPase RhoA via enzymatic transamidation by cytoplasmic tTG. Here, we report an alternative nonenzymatic mechanism of RhoA activation by cell surface tTG. Direct engagement of surface tTG with specific antibody or the fibronectin fragment containing modules I(6)II(1,2)I(7-9) increases RhoA-GTP levels. Integrin-dependent signaling to RhoA and its downstream target Rho-associated coiled-coil containing serine/threonine protein kinase (ROCK) is amplified by surface tTG. tTG expression on the cell surface elevates RhoA-GTP levels in nonadherent and adherent cells, delays maximal RhoA activation upon cell adhesion to fibronectin and accelerates a rise in RhoA activity after binding soluble integrin ligands. These data indicate that surface tTG induces integrin clustering regardless of integrin-ligand interactions. This notion is supported by visualization of integrin clusters, increased susceptibility of integrins to chemical cross-linking, and biochemical detection of large integrin complexes in cells expressing tTG. In turn, integrin aggregation by surface tTG inhibits Src kinase activity and decreases activation of the Src substrate p190RhoGAP. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of Src kinase reveals inactivation of Src signaling as the primary cause of elevated RhoA activity in cells expressing tTG. Together, these findings show that surface tTG amplifies integrin-mediated signaling to RhoA/ROCK via integrin clustering and down-regulation of the Src-p190RhoGAP regulatory pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                August 2007
                03 May 2007
                : 44
                : 5
                : 339-344
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInternal Medicine/Cardiology and bPediatrics, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, N.C., and cDuke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C., USA
                Article
                102277 PMC2762551 J Vasc Res 2007;44:339–344
                10.1159/000102277
                PMC2762551
                17476115
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 34, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Research Paper

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