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      Infrared thermal imaging as a physiological access pathway: a study of the baseline characteristics of facial skin temperatures

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      Physiological Measurement

      IOP Publishing

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          Abstract

          In this study we examine the baseline characteristics of facial skin temperature, as measured by dynamic infrared thermal imaging, to gauge its potential as a physiological access pathway for non-verbal individuals with severe motor impairments. Frontal facial recordings were obtained from 12 asymptomatic adults in a resting state with a high-end infrared thermal imaging system. From the infrared thermal recordings, mean skin temperature time series were generated for regions of interest encompassing the nasal, periorbital and supraorbital areas. A 90% bandwidth for all regions of interest was found to be in the 1 Hz range. Over 70% of the time series were identified as nonstationary (p<0.05), with the nonstationary mean as the greatest contributing source. Correlation coefficients between regions were significant (p<0.05) and ranged from values of 0.30 (between periorbital and supraorbital regions) to 0.75 (between contralateral supraorbital regions). Using information measures, we concluded that the greatest degree of information existed in the nasal and periorbital regions. Mutual information existed across all regions but was especially prominent between the nasal and periorbital regions. Results from this study provide insight into appropriate analysis methods and potential discriminating features for the application of facial skin temperature as a physiological access pathway.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Ten Lectures on Wavelets

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            Feature selection based on mutual information: criteria of max-dependency, max-relevance, and min-redundancy.

            Feature selection is an important problem for pattern classification systems. We study how to select good features according to the maximal statistical dependency criterion based on mutual information. Because of the difficulty in directly implementing the maximal dependency condition, we first derive an equivalent form, called minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance criterion (mRMR), for first-order incremental feature selection. Then, we present a two-stage feature selection algorithm by combining mRMR and other more sophisticated feature selectors (e.g., wrappers). This allows us to select a compact set of superior features at very low cost. We perform extensive experimental comparison of our algorithm and other methods using three different classifiers (naive Bayes, support vector machine, and linear discriminate analysis) and four different data sets (handwritten digits, arrhythmia, NCI cancer cell lines, and lymphoma tissues). The results confirm that mRMR leads to promising improvement on feature selection and classification accuracy.
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              Skin blood flow in adult human thermoregulation: how it works, when it does not, and why.

              The thermoregulatory control of human skin blood flow is vital to the maintenance of normal body temperatures during challenges to thermal homeostasis. Sympathetic neural control of skin blood flow includes the noradrenergic vasoconstrictor system and a sympathetic active vasodilator system, the latter of which is responsible for 80% to 90% of the substantial cutaneous vasodilation that occurs with whole body heat stress. With body heating, the magnitude of skin vasodilation is striking: skin blood flow can reach 6 to 8 L/min during hyperthermia. Cutaneous sympathetic vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems also participate in baroreflex control of blood pressure; this is particularly important during heat stress, when such a large percentage of cardiac output is directed to the skin. Local thermal control of cutaneous blood vessels also contributes importantly--local warming of the skin can cause maximal vasodilation in healthy humans and includes roles for both local sensory nerves and nitric oxide. Local cooling of the skin can decrease skin blood flow to minimal levels. During menopause, changes in reproductive hormone levels substantially alter thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow. This altered control might contribute to the occurrence of hot flashes. In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the ability of skin blood vessels to dilate is impaired. This impaired vasodilation likely contributes to the increased risk of heat illness in this patient population during exposure to elevated ambient temperatures. Raynaud phenomenon and erythromelalgia represent cutaneous microvascular disorders whose pathophysiology appears to relate to disorders of local and/or reflex thermoregulatory control of the skin circulation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Physiological Measurement
                Physiol. Meas.
                IOP Publishing
                0967-3334
                1361-6579
                April 01 2009
                April 01 2009
                March 31 2009
                : 30
                : 4
                : N23-N35
                Article
                10.1088/0967-3334/30/4/N01
                19332894
                © 2009

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