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      Occurrence and characterization of entomogenic galls in an area of Cerrado sensu stricto and Gallery forest of the state of Bahia, Brazil

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          Abstract

          Abstract We surveyed insect galls in an area of Cerrado sensu stricto and Gallery forest in the municipality of Caetité (BA) to contribute to current knowledge of the local flora and its associated gall-inducing insects. Monthly collections were made between February/2015 and January/2016, totaling 12 field campaigns (involving two or three people and lasting four hours) that followed an established path through the countryside. A total of 63 gall morphotypes were identified on 47 host plant species belonging to 22 families; 17 morphotypes were found in the Gallery forest and 46 in Cerrado vegetation. The plant families showing the greatest gall richness were Leguminosae (n=15), Myrtaceae (n=9), and Asteraceae (n=7). The species with the greatest number of galls was Mimosa gemmulata Barneby (Leguminosae) (n=3). Most galls were observed on leaves (66%) and stems (24%); they were mostly green (49.3%) or brown (26%), with globoid shapes (39.7%) or marginal roll (17.4%), and were unilocular (87%), glabrous (62%) and isolated (89%). Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) were the principal gall-inducing insects. The associated fauna was principally composed of Hymenoptera. Eight plant taxa were recorded for the first time as hosts of galling fauna.

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          Most cited references 43

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          The gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

          One hundred and eight species of Cecidomyiinae (Cecidomyiidae) were found in association with 53 species of plant distributed among 42 genera and 32 families at restingas of Barra de Maricá, Itaipuaçu and Carapebus. Ninety four gall midge species were cecidogenous, four predaceous, five inquilinous of galls and five were free living. Galling species were associated with 47 plant species belonging to 36 genera and 28 families. The majority of the galls occurred on the leaves (N = 63); 13 on buds; nine on inflorescence, closed flower or flower peduncle; three on fruits and one on tendril. Myrtaceae were the richest plant family in number of galls followed by Burseraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Sapotaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiaceae and Solanaceae. New records of host plants and localities were recorded. Seventy nine Cecidomyiinae species were found at Restinga of Barra de Maricá, 64 at Carapebus and 41 at Itaipuaçu. Sorensen's index revealed that the restingas of Barra de Maricá and Itaipuaçu ate more similar in Cecidomyiinae fauna, confirming a positive relation between geographical proximity and fauna similarity.
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            Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil)

            One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families) in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively). Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha), Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera). Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera), inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera), and predators (Diptera).
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              Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas de insetos em áreas de restinga de Bertioga (São Paulo, Brasil)

              Levantamentos de galhas entomógenas em restingas do Estado de São Paulo são muito raros, e a diversidade dos insetos galhadores nessas áreas é completamente desconhecida. Neste estudo, ambientes de restinga foram investigados no município de Bertioga (S.P.), com o objetivo de contribuir para o conhecimento das galhas e da taxonomia dos insetos galhadores nesse Estado. Foram encontrados 233 morfotipos de galha de insetos em 123 espécies de plantas e 48 famílias em áreas de restinga de Bertioga. As Myrtaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram maior número de espécies atacadas (14 e 13, respectivamente) e maior riqueza de galhas (31 e 29, respectivamente). A maioria das galhas (cerca de 60%) ocorreu em folhas. Foram encontradas galhas de Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera e Thysanoptera, sendo a maioria (cerca de 57%) induzida por Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). Em 117 morfotipos de galhas (cerca de 50%), foram detectados outros habitantes: inquilinos; sucessores; predadores e parasitóides. Dentre esses, os parasitóides e os inquilinos foram mais freqüentes. Os parasitóides encontrados pertencem a oito famílias distintas de Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae, Platygastridae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Braconidae, Encyrtidae, Mymaridae e Eupelmidae, destacando-se as três primeiras como as mais freqüentes. Os inquilinos encontrados pertencem a cinco ordens de insetos: Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera e Thysanoptera, sendo os Diptera os mais freqüentes.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                aabc
                Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
                An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc.
                Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil )
                0001-3765
                1678-2690
                September 2018
                : 90
                : 3
                : 2903-2919
                Affiliations
                Caetité Bahia orgnameUniversidade do Estado da Bahia orgdiv1Departamento de Ciências Humanas Brazil
                Paulo Afonso Bahia orgnameUniversidade do Estado da Bahia orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade Vegetal orgdiv2Departamento de Educação Brazil
                Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais orgnameUniversidade Federal de Minas Gerais orgdiv1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Vegetal orgdiv2Departamento de Botânica Brazil
                Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro orgnameUniversidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro orgdiv1Departamento de Entomologia Brazil
                Article
                S0001-37652018000602903
                10.1590/0001-3765201820170522

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 17
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