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      Life satisfaction, job satisfaction, life orientation and occupational burnout among nurses and midwives in medical institutions in Poland: a cross-sectional study

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          To assess life satisfaction, job satisfaction, life orientation and the level of professional burnout in a group of professionally active nurses and midwives.


          A cross-sectional study.


          This study was conducted between March and October of 2017 during specialisation training at the European Centre for Postgraduate Education in Wroclaw, Poland.


          A group of 350 professionally active nurses (n=293) and midwives (n=57) were enrolled in the study.

          Outcome measures

          Associations between burnout and selected life-related and job-related outcomes using (1) the Satisfaction With Job Scale, (2) the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), (3) the Life Orientation Test-Revised, (4) the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Authors’ Designed Questionnaire regarding sociodemographic factors. The level of statistical significance was set at p≤0.05 (with a CI of 95%).


          The vast majority of participants were those in the ages of 41–50 years old (40.57%), women (96.86%) and people with bachelor’s degree (46.29%). The average overall rate for occupational burnout was 34.67 per 100 points. Assessment of occupational burnout subscale showed that the most significant factor was emotional exhaustion at 39.14 points (SD=28.15). Job satisfaction, life satisfaction and life orientation assessed with SWLS significantly affects each of the occupational burnout subscales (p<0.05).


          The level of occupational burnout in nurses and midwives appeared to be low. It has been revealed that such determinants as life satisfaction, job satisfaction and life orientation do not allow for developing an occupational burnout.

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          Most cited references 57

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          The Satisfaction With Life Scale.

          This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
            • Record: found
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            Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test.

            Research on dispositional optimism as assessed by the Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver, 1985) has been challenged on the grounds that effects attributed to optimism are indistinguishable from those of unmeasured third variables, most notably, neuroticism. Data from 4,309 subjects show that associations between optimism and both depression and aspects of coping remain significant even when the effects of neuroticism, as well as the effects of trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem, are statistically controlled. Thus, the Life Orientation Test does appear to possess adequate predictive and discriminant validity. Examination of the scale on somewhat different grounds, however, does suggest that future applications can benefit from its revision. Thus, we also describe a minor modification to the Life Orientation Test, along with data bearing on the revised scale's psychometric properties.
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              The measurement of experienced burnout


                Author and article information

                [1 ] departmentDepartment of Clinical Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences , Wroclaw Medical University , Wroclaw, Poland
                [2 ] departmentDepartment of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences , Wroclaw Medical University , Wroclaw, Poland
                [3 ] departmentDepartment of Neonatology, Faculty of Health Sciences , Wroclaw Medical University , Wroclaw, Poland
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Professor Izabella Uchmanowicz; izabella.uchmanowicz@
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                28 January 2019
                : 9
                : 1
                30696678 6352840 bmjopen-2018-024296 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024296
                © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

                This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

                Funded by: Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland as a part of a statutory grant of the Wroclaw Medical University for maintaining research potential;
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