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Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing of Malathion Pesticide in Tomato and Apple Samples Based on Gold Nanoparticles-Chitosan-Ionic Liquid Hybrid Nanocomposite

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      Abstract

      Malathion (MLT) is an organophosphorous type pesticide and having seriously high toxicity and electrochemical platforms for rapid, simple, inexpensive and sensitive determination of pesticides is still a special concern. This paper describes a simple preparation of a composite film consisting of ionic liquid (IL), chitosan (CS) and electrochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on single use pencil graphite electrodes (PGEs). The microscopic and electrochemical characterization of AuNP-CS-IL/PGE was studied using scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This fabricated surface was then explored for the first time as a sensing matrix for the non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of malathion by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry measurements. The proposed AuNP-CS-IL/PGE showed excellent characteristics and possessed remarkable affinity for malathion. The voltammetric current response exhibited two linear dynamic ranges, 0.89–5.94 nM and 5.94–44.6 nM reflecting two binding sites, with a detection limit of 0.68 nM. The method was applied in real sample analysis of apple and tomato. The results demonstrate the feasibility of AuNP-CS-IL-modified electrodes for simple, fast, ultrasensitive and inexpensive detection of MLT.

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      Preparation and characterization of metal-chitosan nanocomposites.

      Various metal-chitosan nanocomposites were synthesized, including silver (Ag), gold (Au), platinum (Pt), and palladium (Pd) in aqueous solutions. Metal nanoparticles were formed by reduction of corresponding metal salts with NaBH4 in the presence of chitosan. And chitosan molecules adsorbing onto the surface of as-prepared metal nanoparticles formed the corresponding metal-chitosan nanocomposites. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and UV-vis spectra of the nanocomposites revealed the presence of metal nanoparticles. Comparison of all the resulting particles size, it shows that silver nanoparticles are much larger than others (Au, Pt and Pd). In addition, the difference in particles size leads to develop different morphologies in the films cast from prepared metal-chitosan nanocomposites. Polarized optical microscopy (POM) images show a batonet-like structure for Ag-chitosan nanocomposites film, while for the films cast from other metal (Au, Pt, and Pd)-chitosan nanocomposites, some branched-like structures with a few differences among them were observed under POM observation.
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        Elementary steps of electrochemical oxidation of single-crystal planes of Au—I. Chemical basis of processes involving geometry of anions and the electrode surfaces

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          Evaluation of the Au size effect: CO oxidation catalyzed by Au/TiO2

           S Dai,  W. Yan,  D. Mullins (2006)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe-Ankara, Turkey; gbolat@ 123456hacettepe.edu.tr
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: sabaci@ 123456hacettepe.edu.tr ; Tel.: +90-312-780-7919
            Journal
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            sensors
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            MDPI
            1424-8220
            05 March 2018
            March 2018
            : 18
            : 3
            29510525
            5876763
            10.3390/s18030773
            sensors-18-00773
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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