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      Development of healthy and sustainable food-based dietary guidelines for the Netherlands

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          To derive healthy and sustainable food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) for different target groups in the Netherlands and describe the process.


          Optimised dietary patterns for children, adolescents, adults and the elderly were calculated using an optimisation model. Foods high in saturated and trans-fatty acids, salt and sugar, and low in dietary fibre, were excluded. The dietary patterns resembled the current food consumption as closely as possible, while simultaneously meeting recommendations for food groups, nutrients, maximum limits for foods with a high environmental impact, and within 85 % of the energy requirement. Recommended daily amounts of food groups were based on the optimised dietary patterns and expert judgement.


          The Netherlands.


          FBDG were derived for Dutch people with different ages, genders, activity levels and food preferences.


          For most target groups the optimisation model provided dietary patterns that complied with all requirements. For some food groups, the optimised amounts varied largely between target groups. For consistent messages to consumers, the optimised dietary patterns were adjusted to uniform recommendations per target group. Recommendations were visualised in the Wheel of Five. The advice is to eat the recommended amounts of foods according to the Wheel of Five and limit consumption of other foods.


          Based on an optimisation model, scientific evidence, information on dietary patterns and expert knowledge, we derived FBDG for different target groups. The Wheel of Five is a key food-counselling model that can help Dutch consumers to make their diets healthier and more environmentally sustainable.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Where are the best opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the food system (including the food chain)?

           Tara Garnett (2011)
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            Sustainable diets for the future: Can we contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eating a healthy diet?

            Food systems account for 18-20% of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Recommendations for improving food choices to reduce GHGEs must be balanced against dietary requirements for health. We assessed whether a reduction in GHGEs can be achieved while meeting dietary requirements for health. A database was created that linked nutrient composition and GHGE data for 82 food groups. Linear programming was used iteratively to produce a diet that met the dietary requirements of an adult woman (19-50 y old) while minimizing GHGEs. Acceptability constraints were added to the model to include foods commonly consumed in the United Kingdom in sensible quantities. A sample menu was created to ensure that the quantities and types of food generated from the model could be combined into a realistic 7-d diet. Reductions in GHGEs of the diets were set against 1990 emission values. The first model, without any acceptability constraints, produced a 90% reduction in GHGEs but included only 7 food items, all in unrealistic quantities. The addition of acceptability constraints gave a more realistic diet with 52 foods but reduced GHGEs by a lesser amount of 36%. This diet included meat products but in smaller amounts than in the current diet. The retail cost of the diet was comparable to the average UK expenditure on food. A sustainable diet that meets dietary requirements for health with lower GHGEs can be achieved without eliminating meat or dairy products or increasing the cost to the consumer.
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              The world's tallest nation has stopped growing taller: the height of Dutch children from 1955 to 2009.

              Records show that mean height in The Netherlands has increased since 1858. This study looks at whether this trend in the world's tallest nation is continuing. We consider the influence of the geographical region, and of the child and parental education, on changes in height. We compared the height of young Dutch people aged 0-21 y as determined on the basis of the growth study of 2009, with the height data from growth studies conducted in 1955, 1965, 1980, and 1997. The analysis sample included 5,811 boys and 6,194 girls. Height by age was the same as in 1997. Mean final height was 183.8 cm (SD = 7.1 cm) in boys and 170.7 cm (SD = 6.3 cm) in girls. The educational levels of both children and their parents are positively correlated with mean height. Since 1997, differences between geographical regions have decreased but not vanished, with the northern population being the tallest. The world's tallest population has stopped growing taller after a period of 150 y, the cause of which is unclear. The Dutch may have reached the optimal height distribution. Alternatively, growth-promoting environmental factors may have stabilized in the past decade, preventing the population from attaining its full growth potential.

                Author and article information

                Public Health Nutr
                Public Health Nutr
                Public Health Nutrition
                Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK )
                September 2019
                02 July 2019
                : 22
                : 13
                : 2419-2435
                [1 ]The Netherlands Nutrition Centre (Voedingscentrum) , PO Box 85700, 2508 CK The Hague, The Netherlands
                [2 ]National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) , Bilthoven, The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author: Email brink@ 123456voedingscentrum.nl
                00143 S1368980019001435
                © The Authors 2019

                This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 7, References: 70, Pages: 17
                Research Paper
                Nutrition Communication


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