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      Exosomes released from human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived MSCs facilitate cutaneous wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and angiogenesis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) have emerged as a promising alternative for stem cell transplantation therapy. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-Exos) can play important roles in repairing injured tissues. However, to date, no reports have demonstrated the use of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in cutaneous wound healing, and little is known regarding their underlying mechanisms in tissue repair.

          Methods

          hiPSC-MSC-Exos were injected subcutaneously around wound sites in a rat model and the efficacy of hiPSC-MSC-Exos was assessed by measuring wound closure areas, by histological and immunofluorescence examinations. We also evaluated the in vitro effects of hiPSC-MSC-Exos on both the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by cell-counting and scratch assays, respectively. The effects of exosomes on fibroblast collagen and elastin secretion were studied in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and quantitative reverse-transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In vitro capillary network formation was determined in tube-formation assays.

          Results

          Transplanting hiPSC-MSC-Exos to wound sites resulted in accelerated re-epithelialization, reduced scar widths, and the promotion of collagen maturity. Moreover, hiPSC-MSC-Exos not only promoted the generation of newly formed vessels, but also accelerated their maturation in wound sites. We found that hiPSC-MSC-Exos stimulated the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts and HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Similarly, Type I, III collagen and elastin secretion and mRNA expression by fibroblasts and tube formation by HUVECs were also increased with increasing hiPSC-MSC-Exos concentrations.

          Conclusions

          Our findings suggest that hiPSC-MSC-Exos can facilitate cutaneous wound healing by promoting collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. These data provide the first evidence for the potential of hiPSC-MSC-Exos in treating cutaneous wounds.

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          Most cited references27

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          Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors.

          Pluripotency pertains to the cells of early embryos that can generate all of the tissues in the organism. Embryonic stem cells are embryo-derived cell lines that retain pluripotency and represent invaluable tools for research into the mechanisms of tissue formation. Recently, murine fibroblasts have been reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by ectopic expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc) to yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Using these same factors, we have derived iPS cells from fetal, neonatal and adult human primary cells, including dermal fibroblasts isolated from a skin biopsy of a healthy research subject. Human iPS cells resemble embryonic stem cells in morphology and gene expression and in the capacity to form teratomas in immune-deficient mice. These data demonstrate that defined factors can reprogramme human cells to pluripotency, and establish a method whereby patient-specific cells might be established in culture.
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            Wound healing--aiming for perfect skin regeneration.

            P. Martin (1997)
            The healing of an adult skin wound is a complex process requiring the collaborative efforts of many different tissues and cell lineages. The behavior of each of the contributing cell types during the phases of proliferation, migration, matrix synthesis, and contraction, as well as the growth factor and matrix signals present at a wound site, are now roughly understood. Details of how these signals control wound cell activities are beginning to emerge, and studies of healing in embryos have begun to show how the normal adult repair process might be readjusted to make it less like patching up and more like regeneration.
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              Exosome-mediated transfer of miR-133b from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to neural cells contributes to neurite outgrowth.

              Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have potential therapeutic benefit for the treatment of neurological diseases and injury. MSCs interact with and alter brain parenchymal cells by direct cell-cell communication and/or by indirect secretion of factors and thereby promote functional recovery. In this study, we found that MSC treatment of rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) significantly increased microRNA 133b (miR-133b) level in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In vitro, miR-133b levels in MSCs and in their exosomes increased after MSCs were exposed to ipsilateral ischemic tissue extracts from rats subjected to MCAo. miR-133b levels were also increased in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes treated with the exosome-enriched fractions released from these MSCs. Knockdown of miR-133b in MSCs confirmed that the increased miR-133b level in astrocytes is attributed to their transfer from MSCs. Further verification of this exosome-mediated intercellular communication was performed using a cel-miR-67 luciferase reporter system and an MSC-astrocyte coculture model. Cel-miR-67 in MSCs was transferred to astrocytes via exosomes between 50 and 100 nm in diameter. Our data suggest that the cel-miR-67 released from MSCs was primarily contained in exosomes. A gap junction intercellular communication inhibitor arrested the exosomal microRNA communication by inhibiting exosome release. Cultured neurons treated with exosome-enriched fractions from MSCs exposed to 72 hours post-MCAo brain extracts significantly increased the neurite branch number and total neurite length. This study provides the first demonstration that MSCs communicate with brain parenchymal cells and may regulate neurite outgrowth by transfer of miR-133b to neural cells via exosomes. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wuzongxiange@126.com
                junjie_guan@126.com
                niuxin999@163.com
                hugw0625@163.com
                1321165979@qq.com
                liqing236@gmail.com
                x91034@qq.com
                zhangcq@sjtu.edu.cn
                wangy63cn@126.com
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1479-5876
                1 February 2015
                1 February 2015
                2015
                : 13
                : 49
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Institute of Microsurgery on Extremities, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital, Shanghai, China
                [ ]Graduate School of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi China
                Article
                417
                10.1186/s12967-015-0417-0
                4371881
                25638205
                4bef1e60-65d2-4763-806a-2bfe33081a92
                © Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 1 November 2014
                : 22 January 2015
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Medicine
                induced pluripotent stem cells (ipscs),exosomes,wound healing,angiogenesis
                Medicine
                induced pluripotent stem cells (ipscs), exosomes, wound healing, angiogenesis

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