62
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney, and Cardiovascular Diseases: Role of Adipokines

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Obesity is a chronic disease, whose incidence is alarmingly growing. It is associated with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular complications. These complications are clustered in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) leading to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and represents an independent risk factor for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Albuminuria is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Microalbuminuria has been described as early manifestation of MetS-associated kidney damage and diabetic nephropathy. Obesity and MetS affect renal physiology and metabolism through mechanisms which include altered levels of adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Secretory products of adipose tissue also deeply and negatively influence endothelial function. A better understanding of these interactions will help in designing more effective treatments aimed to protect both renal and cardiovascular systems.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 134

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients.

            Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.6+/-0.4 versus 7.9+/-0.5 microg/mL in men, 7.6+/-0.7 versus 11.7+/-1.0 microg/mL in women; P<0.001). The plasma adiponectin concentrations of diabetic patients with CAD were lower than those of diabetic patients without CAD (4.0+/-0.4 versus 6.6+/-0.4 microg/mL, P<0.001 in men; 6.3+/-0.8 versus 7.6+/-0. 7 microg/mL in women). In contrast, plasma levels of leptin did not differ between diabetic patients with and without CAD. The presence of microangiopathy did not affect the plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic patients. Significant, univariate, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and fasting plasma insulin (r=-0.18, P<0.01) and glucose (r=-0.26, P<0.001) levels. In multivariate analysis, plasma insulin did not independently affect the plasma adiponectin levels. BMI, serum triglyceride concentration, and the presence of diabetes or CAD remained significantly related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. Weight reduction significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels in the diabetic subjects as well as the nondiabetic subjects. These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Human epicardial adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory mediators.

              Inflammatory mediators that originate in vascular and extravascular tissues promote coronary lesion formation. Adipose tissue may function as an endocrine organ that contributes to an inflammatory burden in patients at risk of cardiovascular complications. In this study, we sought to compare expression of inflammatory mediators in epicardial and subcutaneous adipose stores in patients with critical CAD. Paired samples of epicardial and subcutaneous adipose tissues were harvested at the outset of elective CABG surgery (n=42; age 65+/-10 years). Local expression of chemokine (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]-1) and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) was analyzed by TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRNA) and by ELISA (protein release over 3 hours). Significantly higher levels of IL-1beta, IL-6, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha mRNA and protein were observed in epicardial adipose stores. Proinflammatory properties of epicardial adipose tissue were noted irrespective of clinical variables (diabetes, body mass index, and chronic use of statins or ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers) or plasma concentrations of circulating biomarkers. In a subset of samples (n=11), global gene expression was explored by DNA microarray hybridization and confirmed the presence of a broad inflammatory reaction in epicardial adipose tissue in patients with coronary artery disease. The above findings were paralleled by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates in epicardial adipose stores. Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of several inflammatory mediators in high-risk cardiac patients. Plasma inflammatory biomarkers may not adequately reflect local tissue inflammation. Current therapies do not appear to eliminate local inflammatory signals in epicardial adipose tissue.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cardiol Res Pract
                CRP
                Cardiology Research and Practice
                SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
                2090-0597
                2011
                7 March 2011
                : 2011
                Affiliations
                1Department of Medicina Interna, Università di Tor Vergata, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome, Italy
                2Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Viale Oxford 81, 00133 Rome, Italy
                3UOC Geriatria INRCA, POR Roma, 00189 Rome, Italy
                4Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 00168 Rome, Italy
                Author notes
                *Manfredi Tesauro: mtesauro@ 123456tiscali.it

                Academic Editor: Ken Ichi Aihara

                Article
                10.4061/2011/653182
                3051177
                21403882
                Copyright © 2011 Manfredi Tesauro et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                Comments

                Comment on this article