Our objectives were to (1) compare the effect on pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) of presynchronization of the estrous cycle with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 7d before resynchronization of ovulation (Resynch) initiated 25 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI) and compare the presynchronization treatment with the Double-Ovsynch (DO) protocol, and (2) evaluate whether hCG for presynchronization could be replaced with GnRH. In experiment 1, lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and were randomly assigned to receive (1) Resynch-25 (D25), the Resynch protocol (GnRH-7 d-PGF(2 α)-56 h-GnRH-16 h-TAI) initiated 25 d after TAI (n=418); (2) HGPG, presynchronization with hCG (2,000 IU of Chorulon) 7d before D25 (n=450); and (3) DO (Pre-Resynch, GnRH-7 d-PGF(2 α)-72 h-GnRH; Breeding-Resynch, GnRH-7 d-PGF(2 α)-56 h-GnRH-16 h-TAI) initiated 22d after TAI (n=405). At 29 d after TAI, cows in the HGPG (37.3%) and DO (35.8%) groups had more P/AI than did cows in the D25 group (28.0%), and cows in the HGPG and DO groups continued to have more P/AI than did cows in the D25 group at 53 d after TAI. Presynchronization with hCG induced ovulation in 76% of the cows, which increased the percentage of HGPG cows with a corpus luteum at the initiation of Resynch compared with cows in the D25 group. In experiment 2, the D25 (n=368) and HGPG (n=338) treatments described in experiment 1 were compared in addition to a third treatment (GGPG; n=351), in which the hCG injection 18 d after TAI was replaced with a GnRH injection (200 µg of gonadorelin). At 32 d after TAI, cows in the HGPG group had more P/AI than did cows in the D25 group (33.7 vs. 25.5%), whereas cows in the GGPG group had intermediate P/AI (31.6%). At 53 d after TAI, P/AI tended to be greater for cows in the HGPG group than for those in the D25 group, whereas P/AI for cows in the GGPG group did not differ from that for cows in the D25 group. Treatment with hCG and GnRH 18d after TAI induced ovulation in 58.8 and 48.2% of cows, respectively, but did not increase the percentage of cows with a corpus luteum at the initiation of Resynch. More cows in the HGPG and GGPG groups had their estrous cycles synchronized after the resynchronization protocols compared with cows in the D25 group. We conclude that presynchronization with hCG increased fertility by increasing synchronization to the Resynch protocol, whereas presynchronization with GnRH improved synchronization to the Resynch protocol but did not improve fertility when compared with no presynchronization or presynchronization with hCG.