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      Diabetic retinopathy: seeing beyond glucose-induced microvascular disease.

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          Abstract

          Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction. The diabetes pandemic requires new approaches to understand the pathophysiology and improve the detection, prevention, and treatment of retinopathy. This perspective considers how the unique anatomy and physiology of the retina may predispose it to the metabolic stresses of diabetes. The roles of neural retinal alterations and impaired retinal insulin action in the pathogenesis of early retinopathy and the mechanisms of vision loss are emphasized. Potential means to overcome limitations of current animal models and diagnostic testing are also presented with the goal of accelerating therapies to manage retinopathy in the face of ongoing diabetes.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Diabetes
          Diabetes
          American Diabetes Association
          0012-1797
          0012-1797
          Sep 2006
          : 55
          : 9
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Ophthalmology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.
          Article
          55/9/2401
          10.2337/db05-1635
          16936187

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