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      Stress induced by the COVID-19 health situation in a cohort of 111 subjects present in the Bataclan concert hall during the November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris Translated title: Estrés inducido por la situación de salud del COVID-19 en una cohorte de 111 sujetos presentes en la sala de conciertos Bataclan durante los atentados terroristas de noviembre del 2015 en Paris Translated title: 年 11 月巴黎恐怖袭击期间巴塔克兰音乐厅的 111 名被试队列中由COVID-19 健康状况引起的应激

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          ABSTRACT

          Background

          The management of the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic is all the more difficult when subjects suffer from a prior psychiatric illness. BV13 is a 54-month prospective longitudinal cohort study of 111 subjects who were present in the Bataclan concert hall during the November 2015 terrorist attack in Paris.

          Objectives

          Our first objective was to investigate the association between stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic and PTSD symptoms, notably with respect to two positive risk factors: trait mindfulness and social support. The second was to explore how PTSD severity mediated the relationship between trait mindfulness and COVID-19-induced stress.

          Method

          The primary endpoint was evaluated using the COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI). PTSD symptoms were evaluated using the PTSD Check List Scale (PCL-5) during the sanitary crisis and two years before. Social support was assessed with a Likert scale that measured perceived support from family, friends and the workplace. Trait mindfulness was measured with the 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI).

          Results

          54 months after the attack, a univariate analysis identified a significant positive correlation between COVID-19 stress (CPDI) and PCL-5 (r=0.77, p<0.01) scores, on the one hand, and significant negative correlations with FMI (r=–0.59, p<0.01), and social support (r=–0.28, p<0.01) scores, on the other hand. In the multivariate model, CPDI scores were closely associated with PCL-5 scores ( p<0.01) after adjustment for FMI and social support scores. CPDI and FMI scores were significantly associated ( p=0.05), but not CPDI and social support scores ( p=0.89). The PTSD score was a strong mediator of the relationship between trait mindfulness (FMI) and COVID-19 stress (CPDI) scores.

          Conclusion

          PTSD symptoms diminished the beneficial impact of trait mindfulness on stress related to COVID-19. Our finding highlights that subjects with previous experience of trauma need specific treatment for PTSD symptoms during the COVID-19 crisis.

          HIGHLIGHTS

          • Trait mindfulness may be protective against COVID-19 crisis-induced stress.

          • This protection could be compromised by the presence of PTSD symptoms.

          • Patients with PTSD should receive special psychological monitoring during the health crisis.

          Translated abstract

          Antecedentes: El manejo de las consecuencias psicológicas de la pandemia del COVID-19 es aún más difícil cuando los sujetos padecen de una enfermedad psiquiátrica previa. BV13 es un estudio de cohorte longitudinal prospectivo de 54 meses de 111 sujetos que estuvieron presentes en la sala de conciertos Bataclan durante el ataque terrorista de Noviembre del 2015 en Paris.

          Objetivos: Nuestro primer objetivo fue el de investigar la asociación entre estrés relacionado con la pandemia de COVID-19 y síntomas de TEPT, en particular con respecto a dos factores de riesgo positivos: rasgos de atención plena (Mindfulness) y apoyo social. El segundo fue de explorar cómo la severidad del TEPT mediaba la relación entre los rasgos de atención plena y el estrés inducido por COVID-19.

          Método: El criterio de evaluación principal se evaluó usando el Índice de Malestar Peri traumático COVID-19 (CPDI en sus siglas en ingles). Los síntomas de TEPT se evaluaron usando la Escala de lista de chequeo para TEPT (PCL-5) durante la crisis sanitaria y dos años antes. El apoyo social fue evaluado con una escala de Lickert que medía el apoyo percibido por la familia, los amigos y el lugar de trabajo. Los rasgos de atención plena se midieron con el Inventario de Mente plena de Friburgo (FMI en sus siglas en ingles).

          Resultados: 54 meses después del ataque, un análisis univariado identifico una correlación positiva significativa entre los puntajes de estrés por COVID-19 (CPDI) y el PCL-5 (r= 0.77, p<0.01), por una parte, y una correlación negativa significativa con los puntajes de FMI (r= −0.59, p<0.01) y apoyo social (r= −0.28, p<0.01), por otro lado. En el modelo multivariado, los puntajes de CPDI se asociaron estrechamente con los puntajes del PCL-5 ( p<0.01) después del ajuste por FMI y puntajes de apoyo social. Los puntajes de CPDI y FMI se asociaron significativamente ( p=.05), pero no los puntajes CPDI y apoyo social ( p=.89). El puntaje de TEPT fue un fuerte mediador de la relación entre rasgos de atención plena (FMI) y los puntajes de estrés por COVID-19 (CPDI).

          Conclusión: Los síntomas de TEPT disminuyeron el impacto beneficioso de los rasgos de atención plena en el estrés relacionado con COVID-19. Nuestros hallazgos enfatizan que los sujetos con experiencias previas de trauma necesitan un tratamiento específico para los síntomas de TEPT durante la crisis COVID-19.

          Translated abstract

          背景: 当被试早先患有精神障碍时, COVID-19 疫情心理结果的管理就更加困难。 BV13 是一项针对 2015 年 11 月巴黎恐怖袭击期间身处巴塔克兰音乐厅的 111 名被试的为期 54 个月的前瞻性纵向队列研究。

          目的: 我们的第一个目的是考查 COVID-19 疫情相关应激与 PTSD 症状之间的关联, 特别是在两个积极风险因素方面: 特质正念和社会支持。第二个是探究 PTSD 严重程度如何中介特质正念与 COVID-19 引起的应激之间的关系。

          方法: 主要结果指标由 COVID-19 创伤后应激指数 (CPDI) 评估. 在卫生危机期间和两年前, 使用 PTSD 检查清单 (PCL-5) 评估了 PTSD 症状。社会支持使用李克特量表评估来自家人、朋友和工作场所的感知社会支持。特质正念使用 14 条目弗莱堡正念量表 (FMI) 测量。

          结果: 在恐袭后 54 个月, 单变量分析发现 COVID-19 应激 (CPDI) 一方面与 PCL-5得分之间存在显著正相关(r=0.77, p<.01), 另一方面与 FMI (r =−0.59, p<.01) 和社会支持 (r=−0.28, p<.01) 得分显著负相关。在多变量模型中, 控制FMI 和社会支持分数后, CPDI 分数与 PCL-5 分数紧密相关( p<.01). CPDI 与 FMI 得分显著相关( p=.05), 但与 CPDI 和社会支持得分无关( p=.89). PTSD 分数是特质正念 (FMI) 和 COVID-19 应激 (CPDI) 得分之间关系的强中介因素。

          结论; PTSD 症状减弱了特质正念对 COVID-19 相关应激的有益影响。我们的发现强调, 在 COVID-19 危机期间有先前创伤经历的被试需要 PTSD 症状的特定治疗。

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          Most cited references20

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          The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence

          Summary The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.
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            A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations

            The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic emerged in Wuhan, China, spread nationwide and then onto half a dozen other countries between December 2019 and early 2020. The implementation of unprecedented strict quarantine measures in China has kept a large number of people in isolation and affected many aspects of people’s lives. It has also triggered a wide variety of psychological problems, such as panic disorder, anxiety and depression. This study is the first nationwide large-scale survey of psychological distress in the general population of China during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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              A Longitudinal Study on the Mental Health of General Population during the COVID-19 Epidemic in China

              Highlights • A significant reduction in psychological impact 4 weeks after COVID outbreak. • The mean scores of respondents in both surveys were above PTSD cut-offs. • Female gender, physical symptoms associated with a higher psychological impact. • Hand hygiene, mask-wearing & confidence in doctors reduced psychological impact. • Online trauma-focused psychotherapy may be helpful to public during COVID-19.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Psychotraumatol
                Eur J Psychotraumatol
                European Journal of Psychotraumatology
                Taylor & Francis
                2000-8198
                2000-8066
                7 October 2021
                2021
                7 October 2021
                : 12
                : 1
                : 1980274
                Affiliations
                [a ]Psychiatry & Addiction Department, Hopital Paul Brousse, APHP; , Villejuif, France
                [b ]Stress Neurophysiology Department, French Armed Forces Biomedical Research Institute; , Brétigny-sur-Orge, France
                [c ]Developmental Psychiatry and Trajectories Department, INSERM CESP (Centre de Recherche en Epidémiologie et Santé des Populations); , Villejuif, France
                [d ]Psychiatry & Addiction Department , PsycoMadd, Université Paris Saclay; , Gif-sur-Yvette, France
                [e ]Psychiatry Department, University Hospital of Tours; , France
                [f ]Réseau ABC des Psychotraumas, http://www.abcpsychotraumas.fr/; , France
                [g ]Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, LaPSCo Department; , Clermont-Ferrand, France
                [h ]Psychiatry Department, University Hospital of Clermont–Ferrand; , Clermont–Ferrand, France
                [i ]Research Department, French Military Health Service Academy; , France
                [j ]Public Health Department, APEMAC/EPSAM; , France
                Author notes
                CONTACT Lionel Gibert elgib@ 123456free.fr Hopital Paul Brousse, APHP; ; Villejuif, France
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9785-427X
                Article
                1980274
                10.1080/20008198.2021.1980274
                8725692
                34992758
                4c176de4-f791-4f1a-883b-c522aff21ed3
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 20, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Research Article
                Short Communication

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                ptsd,mindfulness,covid-19,terrorist attack,stress,anxiety,tept,atención plena,ataque terrorista,estrés,ansiedad,正念,恐怖袭击,应激,焦虑

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