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      Assessing the Homogeneity of the Elastic Properties and Composition of the Pig Aortic Media

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          Abstract

          Most previous studies of arterial wall elasticity and rheology have assumed that the properties of the wall are uniform across the thickness of the media and, therefore, that the relationship between stress and strain may be described by a constitutive equation based on a single strain energy function. The few studies where this assumption has been questioned, focussed on differences between the adventitia and the media rather than on differences within the media itself. Here, we report in vitro elasticity and residual strain measurements performed separately on the inner and outer half of the pig aortic media, together with a histomorphometric assessment of the radial distribution of elastin, collagen and smooth muscle cell numbers. Although we found that the pressure-diameter relationships of the two halves were dissimilar, when allowance was made for their different unloaded dimensions, their material properties agreed closely, a result in keeping with the observed uniform radial distribution of scleroprotein and vascular smooth muscle. We also found a difference in the opening angle (which is often taken as a measure of residual strain) between the inner and outer medial halves. However, strain analysis showed that the opening angle is an extremely sensitive measure of residual strain and that the difference in the actual magnitudes of residual strain between the two halves of the media was small. We conclude that the media of the porcine thoracic aorta has similar elastic properties throughout its thickness and that this uniformity is matched by a uniform distribution of matrix protein and vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, the distribution of strain in the media can adequately be described by a single-layer model with uniform elastic properties throughout its thickness.

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          Most cited references 3

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          Developmental Biology of the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell: Building a Multilayered Vessel Wall

          The assembly of the vessel wall from its cellular and extracellular matrix components is a critical process in the development and maturation of the cardiovascular system. However, fundamental questions concerning the origin of vessel wall cells and the mechanisms that regulate their development and differentiation remain unanswered. The initial step of vessel wall morphogenesis is formation of a primary vascular network, comprised of nascent endothelial cell tubes, via the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Subsequently, primordial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are recruited to the endothelium to form a multilayered vessel wall. During the course of development and maturation, the VSMC plays diverse roles: it is a biosynthetic, proliferative, and contractile component of the vessel wall. Although the field of vascular development has blossomed in the past decade, the molecules and mechanisms that regulate this developmental pathway are not well defined. The focus of this review is on those facets of VSMC development important for transforming a nascent endothelial tube into a multilayered structure. We discuss the primordial VSMC with particular attention to its purported origins, the components of the extracellular milieu that contribute to its development, and the contribution of embryonic hemodynamics to vessel wall assembly.
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            Theoretical Study of the Effects of Vascular Smooth Muscle Contraction on Strain and Stress Distributions in Arteries

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              A layered cylindrical shell model for an aorta

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2001
                June 2001
                25 May 2001
                : 38
                : 3
                : 237-246
                Affiliations
                aBiomedical Engineering Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne, Switzerland; bInstitute of Mechanics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria; cDepartment of Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy, St. Bartholomew’s and The Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK
                Article
                51052 J Vasc Res 2001;38:237–246
                10.1159/000051052
                11399896
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

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