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      Teaching the science of learning

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          Abstract

          The science of learning has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of effective teaching and learning strategies. However, few instructors outside of the field are privy to this research. In this tutorial review, we focus on six specific cognitive strategies that have received robust support from decades of research: spaced practice, interleaving, retrieval practice, elaboration, concrete examples, and dual coding. We describe the basic research behind each strategy and relevant applied research, present examples of existing and suggested implementation, and make recommendations for further research that would broaden the reach of these strategies.

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          Most cited references 88

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          Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices*

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            Schema induction and analogical transfer

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              The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice.

              A powerful way of improving one's memory for material is to be tested on that material. Tests enhance later retention more than additional study of the material, even when tests are given without feedback. This surprising phenomenon is called the testing effect, and although it has been studied by cognitive psychologists sporadically over the years, today there is a renewed effort to learn why testing is effective and to apply testing in educational settings. In this article, we selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turn to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings. We also consider the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment as other means of using tests to improve learning. Finally, we consider some negative consequences of testing that may occur in certain circumstances, though these negative effects are often small and do not cancel out the large positive effects of testing. Frequent testing in the classroom may boost educational achievement at all levels of education.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Yana_Weinstein@uml.edu
                Christopher.Madan@nottingham.ac.uk
                msumeracki@ric.edu
                Journal
                Cogn Res Princ Implic
                Cogn Res Princ Implic
                Cognitive Research
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                2365-7464
                24 January 2018
                24 January 2018
                2018
                : 3
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9620 1122, GRID grid.225262.3, Department of Psychology, , University of Massachusetts Lowell, ; Lowell, MA USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0444 7053, GRID grid.208226.c, Department of Psychology, , Boston College, ; Chestnut Hill, MA USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8868, GRID grid.4563.4, School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, ; Nottingham, UK
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9086, GRID grid.262539.9, Department of Psychology, , Rhode Island College, ; Providence, RI USA
                Article
                87
                10.1186/s41235-017-0087-y
                5780548
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: The IDEA Center
                Categories
                Tutorial Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

                teaching, memory, learning, education

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