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      Current status and strategies of long noncoding RNA research for diabetic cardiomyopathy

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          Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are endogenous RNA transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides which regulate epigenetically the expression of genes but do not have protein-coding potential. They are emerging as potential key regulators of diabetes mellitus and a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) refers to diabetes mellitus-elicited structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium, beyond that caused by ischemia or hypertension. The purpose of this review was to summarize current status of lncRNA research for DCM and discuss the challenges and possible strategies of lncRNA research for DCM. A systemic search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Major conference proceedings of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease occurring between January, 2014 to August, 2018 were also searched to identify unpublished studies that may be potentially eligible. The pathogenesis of DCM involves elevated oxidative stress, myocardial inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy due to metabolic disturbances. Thousands of lncRNAs are aberrantly regulated in DCM. Manipulating the expression of specific lncRNAs, such as H19, metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1, and myocardial infarction-associated transcript, with genetic approaches regulates potently oxidative stress, myocardial inflammation, apoptosis, and autophagy and ameliorates DCM in experimental animals. The detail data regarding the regulation and function of individual lncRNAs in DCM are limited. However, lncRNAs have been considered as potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for DCM. Overexpression of protective lncRNAs and knockdown of detrimental lncRNAs in the heart are crucial for defining the role and function of lncRNAs of interest in DCM, however, they are technically challenging due to the length, short life, and location of lncRNAs. Gene delivery vectors can provide exogenous sources of cardioprotective lncRNAs to ameliorate DCM, and CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing technology may be used to knockdown specific lncRNAs in DCM. In summary, current data indicate that LncRNAs are a vital regulator of DCM and act as the promising diagnostic and therapeutic targets for DCM.

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          Modern genotyping platforms permit a systematic search for inherited components of complex diseases. We performed a joint analysis of two genomewide association studies of coronary artery disease. We first identified chromosomal loci that were strongly associated with coronary artery disease in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) study (which involved 1926 case subjects with coronary artery disease and 2938 controls) and looked for replication in the German MI [Myocardial Infarction] Family Study (which involved 875 case subjects with myocardial infarction and 1644 controls). Data on other single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated with coronary artery disease in either study (P 80%) of a true association: chromosomes 1p13.3 (rs599839), 1q41 (rs17465637), 10q11.21 (rs501120), and 15q22.33 (rs17228212). We identified several genetic loci that, individually and in aggregate, substantially affect the risk of development of coronary artery disease. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Expression of the INK4b/ARF/INK4a tumor suppressor locus in normal and cancerous cell growth is controlled by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me) as directed by the Polycomb group proteins. The antisense noncoding RNA ANRIL of the INK4b/ARF/INK4a locus is also important for expression of the protein-coding genes in cis, but its mechanism has remained elusive. Here we report that chromobox 7 (CBX7) within the polycomb repressive complex 1 binds to ANRIL, and both CBX7 and ANRIL are found at elevated levels in prostate cancer tissues. In concert with H3K27me recognition, binding to RNA contributes to CBX7 function, and disruption of either interaction impacts the ability of CBX7 to repress the INK4b/ARF/INK4a locus and control senescence. Structure-guided analysis reveals the molecular interplay between noncoding RNA and H3K27me as mediated by the conserved chromodomain. Our study suggests a mechanism by which noncoding RNA participates directly in epigenetic transcriptional repression. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              A developmental analysis of growth kinetics in mouse embryos carrying null mutations of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R), alone or in combination, defined the onset of mutational effects leading to growth deficiency and indicated that between embryonic days 11.0 and 12.5, IGF1R serves only the in vivo mitogenic signaling of IGF-II. From E13.5 onward, IGF1R interacts with both IGF-I and IGF-II, while IGF-II recognizes an additional unknown receptor (XR). In contrast with the embryo proper, placental growth is served exclusively by an IGF-II-XR interaction. Additional genetic data suggested that the type 2IGF/mannose 6-phosphate receptor is an unlikely candidate for XR. Postnatal growth curves indicated that surviving Igf-1(-/-) mutants, which are infertile and exhibit delayed bone development, continue to grow with a retarded rate after birth in comparison with wild-type littermates and become 30% of normal weight as adults.

                Author and article information

                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                20 October 2018
                20 October 2018
                : 18
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2111 8460, GRID grid.30760.32, Department of Medicine, , Medical College of Wisconsin, ; 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000419368956, GRID grid.168010.e, Department of Ophthalmology, , Stanford School of Medicine, ; 1651 Page Mill Road, Stanford, CA 94304 USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2111 8460, GRID grid.30760.32, Department of Pediatrics, , Medical College of Wisconsin, ; 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2111 8460, GRID grid.30760.32, Department of Cell Biology, Neurology & Anatomy, , Medical College of Wisconsin, ; 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2111 8460, GRID grid.30760.32, Department of Physiology, , Medical College of Wisconsin, ; 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0613 6919, GRID grid.252262.3, Centre for Biotechnology, , Anna University, ; Chennai, Tamil Nadu India
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000057, National Institute of General Medical Sciences;
                Award ID: P01 GM066730
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                © The Author(s) 2018

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                long noncoding rnas, diabetic cardiomyopathy, h19, malat1, miat, sencr, mt-lipcar


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