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Chemical Design of Functional Polymer Structures for Biosensors: From Nanoscale to Macroscale

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      Abstract

      Over the past decades, biosensors, a class of physicochemical detectors sensitive to biological analytes, have drawn increasing interest, particularly in light of growing concerns about human health. Functional polymeric materials have been widely researched for sensing applications because of their structural versatility and significant progress that has been made concerning their chemistry, as well as in the field of nanotechnology. Polymeric nanoparticles are conventionally used in sensing applications due to large surface area, which allows rapid and sensitive detection. On the macroscale, hydrogels are crucial materials for biosensing applications, being used in many wearable or implantable devices as a biocompatible platform. The performance of both hydrogels and nanoparticles, including sensitivity, response time, or reversibility, can be significantly altered and optimized by changing their chemical structures; this has encouraged us to overview and classify chemical design strategies. Here, we have organized this review into two main sections concerning the use of nanoparticles and hydrogels (as polymeric structures) for biosensors and described chemical approaches in relevant subcategories, which act as a guide for general synthetic strategies.

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      Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Its Derivatives: Past, Present, and Future

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        Human exposure to nanoparticles is inevitable as nanoparticles become more widely used and, as a result, nanotoxicology research is now gaining attention. However, while the number of nanoparticle types and applications continues to increase, studies to characterize their effects after exposure and to address their potential toxicity are few in comparison. In the medical field in particular, nanoparticles are being utilized in diagnostic and therapeutic tools to better understand, detect, and treat human diseases. Exposure to nanoparticles for medical purposes involves intentional contact or administration; therefore, understanding the properties of nanoparticles and their effect on the body is crucial before clinical use can occur. This Review presents a summary of the in vitro cytotoxicity data currently available on three classes of nanoparticles. With each of these nanoparticles, different data has been published about their cytotoxicity due to varying experimental conditions as well as differing nanoparticle physiochemical properties. For nanoparticles to move into the clinical arena, it is important that nanotoxicology research uncovers and understands how these multiple factors influence the toxicity of nanoparticles so that their undesirable properties can be avoided.
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          Polymer brushes via surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization: synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications.

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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Polymer Engineering, Graduate School, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea; dlrudals999@ 123456snu.ac.kr (K.M.L.); doublekh0119@ 123456gmail.com (K.H.K.)
            [2 ]Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
            [3 ]School of Polymer Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea
            Author notes
            [* ]Correspondence: hyoon@ 123456chonnam.ac.kr (H.Y.); kimhw@ 123456jnu.ac.kr (H.K.); Tel.: +82-062-530-1778 (H.Y.); +82-062-530-1775 (H.K.)
            [†]

            These authors contributed equally to this work.

            Journal
            Polymers (Basel)
            Polymers (Basel)
            polymers
            Polymers
            MDPI
            2073-4360
            21 May 2018
            May 2018
            : 10
            : 5
            6415446 10.3390/polym10050551 polymers-10-00551
            © 2018 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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