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      Evaluation of external pressure to the sacral region in the lithotomy position using the noninvasive pressure distribution measurement system

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          Pressure ulcers (PUs) in the sacral region can be a complication of surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position. Previous reports have noted a difference between men and women in PU development related to the supine position, and body weight and body mass index (BMI) have been also described as known risk factors in supine position-related PU development. The BIG-MAT ® system is a noninvasive pressure distribution measurement device used to measure external pressure (EP). We used this system to investigate the relationship between EP to the sacral region in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics.


          We recruited 21 young, healthy volunteers (11 men and 10 women, aged 21.4±0.5 years). Using the BIG-MAT system, we measured four types of EP to the sacral region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure. We analyzed the relationships between these dynamic parameters and physical characteristics of the participants.


          There were no differences between men and women in the four types of EP, and no significant differences related to the participants’ height, weight, or BMI.


          An individual’s height, weight, and BMI may not contribute to the risk of inducing lithotomy position-related PUs in the sacral region. The noninvasive pressure distribution measurement system BIG-MAT for patients in the lithotomy position during surgery could become a significant device when estimating EP at the sacral region.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Pressure ulcer prevention and management.

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            Pressure ulcers in intensive care patients: a review of risks and prevention.

            Review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers in the intensive care setting. DATA SOURCE AND STUDY SELECTIONS: Computerized databases (Medline from 1980 until 1999 and CINAHL from 1982 until 1999). The indexing terms for article retrieval were: "pressure ulcers", "pressure sores", "decubitus", and "intensive care". Nineteen articles met the selection criteria, and seven more were found from the references of these articles. One thesis was also analyzed. Data on prevention, incidence, and costs of pressure ulcers in ICU patients are scarce. Overall there are no conclusive studies on the identification of pressure ulcer risk factors. None of the existing risk-assessment scales was developed especially for use in ICU patients. It is highly questionable to what extent these scales can be used in this setting as they are not even reliable in "standard care". The following risk factors might play a role in pressure ulcer development: duration of surgery and number of operations, fecal incontinence and/or diarrhea, low preoperative protein and albumin concentrations, disturbed sensory perception, moisture of the skin, impaired circulation, use of inotropic drugs, diabetes mellitus, too unstable to turn, decreased mobility, and high APACHE II score. The number of patients per study ranged from 5 from 638. The definition of "pressure ulcer" varied widely between authors or was not mentioned. Meaningful comparison cannot be made between the various studies because of the use of different grading systems for pressure ulcers, different methods of data collection, different (or lack of) population characteristics, unreported preventive measures, and the use of different inclusion and exclusion criteria. There is a need for well-conducted studies covering all these aspects.
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              Body mass index and outcomes in critically injured blunt trauma patients: weighing the impact.

              The influence of increased body mass index (BMI) on morbidity and mortality in critically injured trauma patients has been studied, with conflicting results. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between stratified BMI and outcomes in blunt injured patients. Consecutive adult trauma patients from July 2001 to November 2005 with Injury Severity Score (ISS) > or = 16 and blunt mechanism were evaluated using the National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons. Demographics, injury severity, hospital course, complications, and mortality were compared among standard BMI strata. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals and evaluate BMI as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Statistical significance was set at p or =40 kg/m(2)) was associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR 3.675, 95% CI, 1.237 to 10.916), acute respiratory failure (OR 2.793, 95% CI, 1.633 to 4.778), acute renal failure (OR 13.506, 2.388 to 76.385), multisystem organ failure (OR 2.639, 95% CI, 1.085 to 6.421), pneumonia (OR 2.487, 95% CI, 1.483 to 4.302), urinary tract infection (OR 2.332, 95% CI, 1.229 to 4.427), deep venous thrombosis (OR 4.112, 95% CI, 1.253 to 13.496), and decubitus ulcer (OR 2.841, 95% CI, 1.382 to 5.841). Morbid obesity was not associated with increased mortality (OR 0.810, 95% CI, 0.353 to 1.856). This is the largest study to date evaluating the relationship between BMI and outcomes in critically injured trauma patients. Increasing BMI increases morbidity while having no proved influence on mortality.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                17 February 2017
                : 13
                : 207-213
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Juntendo University, Faculty of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo
                [2 ]Faculty of Health and Welfare Science, Okayama Prefectural University, Soja-shi, Okayama, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Ju Mizuno, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Juntendo University, Faculty of Medicine, 3-1-3 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8431, Japan, Tel +81 3 3813 3111, Fax +81 3 5689 3820, Email jmizuno@ 123456juntendo.ac.jp
                © 2017 Mizuno and Takahashi. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed

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