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      Multinational prospective study of incidence and risk factors for central-line–associated bloodstream infections in 728 intensive care units of 41 Asian, African, Eastern European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries over 24 years

      , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
      Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
      Cambridge University Press (CUP)

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          Abstract

          Objective:

          To identify central-line (CL)–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) incidence and risk factors in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

          Design:

          From July 1, 1998, to February 12, 2022, we conducted a multinational multicenter prospective cohort study using online standardized surveillance system and unified forms.

          Setting:

          The study included 728 ICUs of 286 hospitals in 147 cities in 41 African, Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.

          Patients:

          In total, 278,241 patients followed during 1,815,043 patient days acquired 3,537 CLABSIs.

          Methods:

          For the CLABSI rate, we used CL days as the denominator and the number of CLABSIs as the numerator. Using multiple logistic regression, outcomes are shown as adjusted odds ratios (aORs).

          Results:

          The pooled CLABSI rate was 4.82 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days, which is significantly higher than that reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC NHSN). We analyzed 11 variables, and the following variables were independently and significantly associated with CLABSI: length of stay (LOS), risk increasing 3% daily (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.03–1.04; P < .0001), number of CL days, risk increasing 4% per CL day (aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.04; P < .0001), surgical hospitalization (aOR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03–1.21; P < .0001), tracheostomy use (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.23–1.88; P < .0001), hospitalization at a publicly owned facility (aOR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.31–4.01; P <.0001) or at a teaching hospital (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 2.22–3.83; P < .0001), hospitalization in a middle-income country (aOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.09–2.77; P < .0001). The ICU type with highest risk was adult oncology (aOR, 4.35; 95% CI, 3.11–6.09; P < .0001), followed by pediatric oncology (aOR, 2.51;95% CI, 1.57–3.99; P < .0001), and pediatric (aOR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.81–3.01; P < .0001). The CL type with the highest risk was internal-jugular (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.71–3.33; P < .0001), followed by femoral (aOR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.96–2.68; P < .0001). Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) was the CL with the lowest CLABSI risk (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.02–2.18; P = .04).

          Conclusions:

          The following CLABSI risk factors are unlikely to change: country income level, facility ownership, hospitalization type, and ICU type. These findings suggest a focus on reducing LOS, CL days, and tracheostomy; using PICC instead of internal-jugular or femoral CL; and implementing evidence-based CLABSI prevention recommendations.

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          Most cited references35

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Device-associated nosocomial infections in 55 intensive care units of 8 developing countries.

          Health care-associated infections from invasive medical devices in the intensive care unit (ICU) are a major threat to patient safety. Most published studies of ICU-acquired infections have come from industrialized western countries. In a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System report, the U.S. pooled mean rates of central venous catheter (CVC)-related bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and catheter-associated urinary tract infections were 4.0 per 1000 CVC days, 5.4 per 1000 mechanical ventilator days, and 3.9 per Foley catheter days, respectively. To ascertain the incidence of device-associated infections in the ICUs of developing countries. Multicenter, prospective cohort surveillance of device-associated infection by using the CDC NNIS System definitions. 55 ICUs of 46 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Mexico, Morocco, Peru, and Turkey that are members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). Rates of device-associated infection per 100 patients and per 1000 device days. During 2002-2005, 21,069 patients who were hospitalized in ICUs for an aggregate 137,740 days acquired 3095 device-associated infections for an overall rate of 14.7% or 22.5 infections per 1000 ICU days. Ventilator-associated pneumonia posed the greatest risk (41% of all device-associated infections or 24.1 cases [range, 10.0 to 52.7 cases] per 1000 ventilator days), followed by CVC-related bloodstream infections (30% of all device-associated infections or 12.5 cases [range, 7.8 to 18.5 cases] per 1000 catheter days) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (29% of all device-associated infections or 8.9 cases [range, 1.7 to 12.8 cases] per 1000 catheter days). Notably, 84% of Staphylococcus aureus infections were caused by methicillin-resistant strains, 51% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone, and 59% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were resistant to fluoroquinolones. The crude mortality rate for patients with device-associated infections ranged from 35.2% (for CVC-associated bloodstream infection) to 44.9% (for ventilator-associated pneumonia). These initial data are not adequate to represent any entire country, and likely variations in the efficiency of surveillance and institutional resources may have affected the rates that were detected. Device-associated infections in the ICUs of these developing countries pose greater threats to patient safety than in U.S. ICUs. Active infection control programs that perform surveillance of infection and implement guidelines for prevention can improve patient safety and must become a priority in every country.
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            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The risk of bloodstream infection associated with peripherally inserted central catheters compared with central venous catheters in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

            Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are associated with central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). The magnitude of this risk relative to central venous catheters (CVCs) is unknown. To compare risk of CLABSI between PICCs and CVCs. MEDLINE, CinAHL, Scopus, EmBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched. Full-text studies comparing the risk of CLABSI between PICCs and CVCs were included. Studies involving adults 18 years of age or older who underwent insertion of a PICC or a CVC and reported CLABSI were included in our analysis. Studies were evaluated using the Downs and Black scale for risk of bias. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate summary estimates of CLABSI risk in patients with PICCs versus CVCs. Of 1,185 studies identified, 23 studies involving 57,250 patients met eligibility criteria. Twenty of 23 eligible studies reported the total number of CLABSI episodes in patients with PICCs and CVCs. Pooled meta-analyses of these studies revealed that PICCs were associated with a lower risk of CLABSI than were CVCs (relative risk [RR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.94). Statistical heterogeneity prompted subgroup analysis, which demonstrated that CLABSI reduction was greatest in outpatients (RR [95% CI], 0.22 [0.18-0.27]) compared with hospitalized patients who received PICCs (RR [95% CI], 0.73 [0.54-0.98]). Thirteen of the included 23 studies reported CLABSI per catheter-day. Within these studies, PICC-related CLABSI occurred as frequently as CLABSI from CVCs (incidence rate ratio [95% CI], 0.91 [0.46-1.79]). Only 1 randomized trial met inclusion criteria. CLABSI definition and infection prevention strategies were variably reported. Few studies reported infections by catheter-days. Although PICCs are associated with a lower risk of CLABSI than CVCs in outpatients, hospitalized patients may be just as likely to experience CLABSI with PICCs as with CVCs. Consideration of risks and benefits before PICC use in inpatient settings is warranted.
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              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              National Healthcare Safety Network report, data summary for 2013, Device-associated Module.

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                Journal
                Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology
                Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol.
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0899-823X
                1559-6834
                November 2023
                April 28 2023
                November 2023
                : 44
                : 11
                : 1737-1747
                Article
                10.1017/ice.2023.69
                4c37f136-36d3-4cbe-a30f-9af3a0e56b47
                © 2023

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