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      Psoriatic Arthritis Is an Indicator of Significant Renal Damage in Patients with Psoriasis: An Observational and Epidemiological Study

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      International Journal of Inflammation

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Background. Psoriasis affects joints in around 30% of the patients. Recent studies have demonstrated an increased risk of essential hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and stroke in psoriatic patients. However, the prevalence of renal disease in patients with psoriasis has not been evaluated properly. Objectives. Objectives were to evaluate renal functions in patients with psoriasis and to assess any possible relationship of renal failure with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 30 participants were recruited into the following three groups: group-A, psoriatic arthritis; group-B, psoriasis without arthritis; and group-C, healthy subjects. Renal function tests were performed for every participant of each group. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Chi-squared and one-way ANOVA tests were applied, considering a P value of less than 0.05 as a standard criterion. Results. Serum creatinine, urea, and phosphate were the highest in group-A, higher in group-B, and normal in group-C, P < 0.05. Similarly, GFR was the lowest in group-A, lower in group-B, and normal in group-C. The difference in mean GFR values was statistically significant, F(2) = 355, P < 0.001. Moreover, proteinuria (gm/day) was seen in 96.7% of the patients with psoriatic arthritis, ( M = 1.18 ± 0.55, P < 0.05) against 10% of the psoriatic patients without arthritis ( M = 0.41 ± 0.10, P < 0.05). Conclusion. Derangement of renal function is more prevalent in psoriatic patients, especially in those with concomitant psoriatic arthritis. Therefore, each psoriatic patient must be routinely screened for an underlying renal failure.

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          Most cited references 28

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          Pathogenesis and clinical features of psoriasis.

          Psoriasis, a papulosquamous skin disease, was originally thought of as a disorder primarily of epidermal keratinocytes, but is now recognised as one of the commonest immune-mediated disorders. Tumour necrosis factor alpha, dendritic cells, and T-cells all contribute substantially to its pathogenesis. In early-onset psoriasis (beginning before age 40 years), carriage of HLA-Cw6 and environmental triggers, such as beta-haemolytic streptococcal infections, are major determinants of disease expression. Moreover, at least nine chromosomal psoriasis susceptibility loci have been identified. Several clinical phenotypes of psoriasis are recognised, with chronic plaque (psoriasis vulgaris) accounting for 90% of cases. Comorbidities of psoriasis are attracting interest, and include impairment of quality of life and associated depressive illness, cardiovascular disease, and a seronegative arthritis known as psoriatic arthritis. A more complete understanding of underlying pathomechanisms is leading to new treatments, which will be discussed in the second part of this Series.
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            Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: A population-based study in the United Kingdom

            Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests independent associations between psoriasis and cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that directly-assessed psoriasis severity relates to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components. Population-based, cross-sectional study using computerized medical records from The Health Improvement Network Study population included individuals aged 45-65 years with psoriasis and practice-matched controls. Psoriasis diagnosis and extent were determined using provider-based questionnaires. Metabolic syndrome was defined using National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria. 44,715 individuals were included: 4,065 with psoriasis and 40,650 controls. 2,044 participants had mild psoriasis (≤2% body surface area (BSA)), 1,377 had moderate (3-10% BSA), and 475 had severe psoriasis (>10% BSA). Psoriasis was associated with metabolic syndrome, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.41 (95% CI 1.31-1.51), varying in a “dose-response” manner, from mild (adj. OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.35) to severe psoriasis (adj. OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.62-2.43). Psoriasis is associated with metabolic syndrome and the association increases with increasing disease severity. Furthermore, associations with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia increase with increasing disease severity independent of other metabolic syndrome components. These findings suggest that screening for metabolic disease should be considered for psoriasis, especially when extensive.
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              Cause-specific mortality in patients with severe psoriasis: a population-based cohort study in the U.K.

              Severe psoriasis is associated with excess mortality and increased risk of cardiovascular death. Population-based data evaluating cause-specific mortality in patients with psoriasis are limited. To describe cause-specific mortality in patients with severe psoriasis. We performed a cohort study from 1987 to 2002 of patients ≥18 years using the General Practice Research Database. We compared patients with a psoriasis code and a history of systemic therapy consistent with severe psoriasis (n=3603) with patients with no history of psoriasis (n=14,330). Age- and sex-adjusted Cox models were created for each of the leading causes of death defined by the Centers for Disease Control. Patients with severe psoriasis were at increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease [hazard ratio (HR) 1·57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·26-1·96], malignancies (HR 1·41, 95% CI 1·07-1·86), chronic lower respiratory disease (HR 2·08, 95% CI 1·24-3·48), diabetes (HR 2·86, 95% CI 1·08-7·59), dementia (HR 3·64, 95% CI 1·36-9·72), infection (HR 1·65, 95% CI 1·26-2·18), kidney disease (HR 4·37, 95% CI 2·24-8·53) and unknown/missing causes (HR 1·43, 95% CI 1·09-1·89). The absolute and excess risk of death was highest for cardiovascular disease (61·9 and 3·5 deaths per 1000 patient-years, respectively). Severe psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of death from a variety of causes, with cardiovascular death being the most common aetiology. These patients were also at increased risk of death from causes not previously reported, such as infection, kidney disease and dementia. Additional studies are necessary to determine the degree to which excess causes of death are due to psoriasis, its treatments, associated behaviours, or other factors. © The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Journal of Dermatology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Inflam
                Int J Inflam
                IJI
                International Journal of Inflammation
                Hindawi
                2090-8040
                2042-0099
                2017
                22 March 2017
                : 2017
                Affiliations
                KTH, Peshawar, Pakistan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Han J. Moshage

                Article
                10.1155/2017/5217687
                5380854
                Copyright © 2017 Abidullah Khan et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Immunology

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