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      The complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Cladotaenia vulturi (Cestoda: Paruterinidae): gene arrangement and phylogenetic relationships with other cestodes

      , 1 , 2

      Parasites & Vectors

      BioMed Central

      Mitochondrial genome, Cladotaenia vulturi, Comparative genomics, Phylogeny, Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea

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          Tapeworms Cladotaenia spp. are among the most important wildlife pathogens in birds of prey. The genus Cladotaenia is placed in the family Paruterinidae based on morphological characteristics and hosts. However, limited molecular information is available for studying the phylogenetic position of this genus in relation to other cestodes.


          In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cladotaenia vulturi was amplified using “Long-PCR” and then sequenced by primer walking. Sequence annotation and gene identification were performed by comparison with published flatworm mt genomes. The phylogenetic relationships of C. vulturi with other cestode species were established using the concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes with Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood methods.


          The complete mitochondrial genome of the Cladotaenia vulturi is 13,411 kb in size and contains 36 genes. The gene arrangement of C. vulturi is identical to those in Anoplocephala spp. (Anoplocephalidae), Hymenolepis spp. (Hymenolepididae) and Dipylidium caninum (Dipylidiidae), but different from that in taeniids owing to the order shift between the tRNA (L1) and tRNA (S2) genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of the concatenated 12 protein-coding genes showed that the species in the Taeniidae form a group and C. vulturi is a sister taxon to the species of the family Taeniidae.


          To our knowledge, the present study provides the first molecular data to support the early proposal from morphological evidence that the Taeniidae is a sister group to the family Paruterinidae. This novel mt genome sequence will be useful for further investigations into the population genetics, phylogenetics and systematics of the family Paruterinidae and inferring phylogenetic relationships among several lineages within the order Cyclophyllidea.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1769-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Big trees from little genomes: mitochondrial gene order as a phylogenetic tool.

          Gene arrangement comparisons are a powerful tool for phylogenetic studies, especially those focused on ancient relationships. Recent reports using metazoan mitochondrial genomes address evolutionary relationships as well as rates and mechanisms of rearrangement. Mitochondrial systems serve as a model for larger-scale comparisons of whole organismal genomes and a stimulus for developing methods for reconstructing the patterns of rearrangement.
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            Gene translocation links insects and crustaceans.

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              Rare genomic changes as a tool for phylogenetics.

              DNA sequence data have offered valuable insights into the relationships between living organisms. However, most phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences rely primarily on single nucleotide substitutions, which might not be perfect phylogenetic markers. Rare genomic changes (RGCs), such as intron indels, retroposon integrations, signature sequences, mitochondrial and chloroplast gene order changes, gene duplications and genetic code changes, provide a suite of complementary markers with enormous potential for molecular systematics. Recent exploitation of RGCs has already started to yield exciting phylogenetic information.

                Author and article information

                Parasit Vectors
                Parasit Vectors
                Parasites & Vectors
                BioMed Central (London )
                31 August 2016
                31 August 2016
                : 9
                : 1
                [1 ]State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, 730046 Gansu Province People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009 Jiangsu Province People’s Republic of China
                © The Author(s). 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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