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      The combined effect of the T2DM susceptibility genes is an important risk factor for T2DM in non-obese Japanese: a population based case-control study

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          Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder. Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many novel susceptibility loci for T2DM, and indicated that there are common genetic causes contributing to the susceptibility to T2DM in multiple populations worldwide. In addition, clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity is a major risk factor for T2DM. However, the prevalence of obesity varies among the various ethnic groups. We aimed to determine the combined effects of these susceptibility loci and obesity/overweight for development of T2DM in the Japanese.


          Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near 17 susceptibility loci for T2DM, identified through GWAS in Caucasian and Asian populations, were genotyped in 333 cases with T2DM and 417 control subjects.


          We confirmed that the cumulative number of risk alleles based on 17 susceptibility loci for T2DM was an important risk factor in the development of T2DM in Japanese population ( P < 0.0001), although the effect of each risk allele was relatively small. In addition, the significant association between an increased number of risk alleles and an increased risk of T2DM was observed in the non-obese group ( P < 0.0001 for trend), but not in the obese/overweight group ( P = 0.88 for trend).


          Our findings indicate that there is an etiological heterogeneity of T2DM between obese/overweight and non-obese subjects.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
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            Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

            Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In obese individuals, adipose tissue releases increased amounts of non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines and other factors that are involved in the development of insulin resistance. When insulin resistance is accompanied by dysfunction of pancreatic islet beta-cells - the cells that release insulin - failure to control blood glucose levels results. Abnormalities in beta-cell function are therefore critical in defining the risk and development of type 2 diabetes. This knowledge is fostering exploration of the molecular and genetic basis of the disease and new approaches to its treatment and prevention.
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              Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels.

              New strategies for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) require improved insight into disease etiology. We analyzed 386,731 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1464 patients with T2D and 1467 matched controls, each characterized for measures of glucose metabolism, lipids, obesity, and blood pressure. With collaborators (FUSION and WTCCC/UKT2D), we identified and confirmed three loci associated with T2D-in a noncoding region near CDKN2A and CDKN2B, in an intron of IGF2BP2, and an intron of CDKAL1-and replicated associations near HHEX and in SLC30A8 found by a recent whole-genome association study. We identified and confirmed association of a SNP in an intron of glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) with serum triglycerides. The discovery of associated variants in unsuspected genes and outside coding regions illustrates the ability of genome-wide association studies to provide potentially important clues to the pathogenesis of common diseases.

                Author and article information

                BMC Med Genet
                BMC Med. Genet
                BMC Medical Genetics
                BioMed Central
                24 February 2012
                : 13
                : 11
                [1 ]Laboratory of Human Genetics, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, Global COE Program, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
                [2 ]Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, Global COE Program, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
                [3 ]Department of Data Managements for Health Evaluation & Promotion, Shizuoka Medical Center, Shizuoka 422-8033, Japan
                Copyright ©2012 Yamakawa-Kobayashi et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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