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      Pain incidence, assessment, and management in Vietnam: a cross-sectional study of 12,136 respondents

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          To describe the rate and demographics of pain among Vietnamese people in 48 provinces and describe the impact of pain on individuals, levels of satisfaction with treatment results, and behavior of pain sufferers.


          The cross-sectional study was conducted in adults presenting to outpatient clinics throughout 48 provinces in Vietnam and were randomly selected for inclusion in this study. A physician trained to administer a questionnaire in a standardized fashion interviewed each patient and collected data regarding gender, age, career, acute and chronic pain, diagnoses, treatment, and satisfaction with treatment.


          There were 12,136 respondents (50.65% male and 49.35% female) from 48 of the 63 provinces in Vietnam. About 86.53% of respondents reported experiencing pain that affected their daily lives, with 24.10% complaining of acute pain and 62.43% having chronic pain. About 67.71% reported pain that affected job performance. Headache was the most common complaint in 35.43% of the respondents. Fewer than half (43.35%) of all patients with pain sought help from a doctor; only a quarter (27.50%) sought help within 1 month of experiencing that pain. A majority (61.98%) of patients who did seek help were satisfied with treatment results. The median cost of treatment was between 150 and 250 USD.


          Pain severe enough to impact patients’ daily lives is common in Vietnam. Treatment costs are a significant economic burden and may help explain why only a minority of patients seek treatment. Access to lower cost, effective treatment for pain should be improved.

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          The impact of chronic pain in the community.

          Chronic pain is known to be very common in the community. Less is known about the epidemiology of more significant or severe chronic pain. The impact of chronic pain in the community, in terms of general health, employment and interference with daily activity, has not been quantified. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and distribution in the community of chronic pain defined as 'significant' and 'severe', and to explore the impact of chronic pain on health and activity. A questionnaire survey was carried out of a sample drawn from the general population in the Grampian region of SCOTLAND: Questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 4611 individuals aged 25 years and over, stratified for age and gender, selected from the practice lists of 29 general practices (total practice population 136,383). The study instrument included a case definition questionnaire, from which were identified individuals with 'any chronic pain' (pain of at least 3 months duration). The instrument also included a level of expressed need questionnaire and the chronic pain grade questionnaire, from which were derived definitions for 'significant chronic pain' (based on the reported need for treatment and professional advice) and 'severe chronic pain' (based on reported intensity and pain-related disability). The SF-36 general health questionnaire and demographic questions were also included. Of the sample, 14.1% reported 'significant chronic pain', and this was more prevalent among women and older age groups. A total of 6.3% reported 'severe chronic pain', and this was more common in older age groups. On multiple logistic regression modelling, female gender, housing tenure, employment category and educational attainment were found to be independently associated with both 'significant' and 'severe' chronic pain. The presence of 'any', 'significant' and 'severe' chronic pain had progressively more marked adverse associations with employment, interference with daily activities and all measured dimensions of general health. Comparison of the epidemiology of 'significant chronic pain' and 'severe chronic pain' with 'any chronic pain' allows an understanding of the more clinically important end of the chronic pain spectrum. These results support the suggestion that chronic pain is multidimensional, both in its aetiology and in its effects, particularly at this end of the spectrum. This must be addressed in management and in further research.
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            Quality of life in chronic pain is more associated with beliefs about pain, than with pain intensity.

            The objectives of this study were to investigate pain cognitions and quality of life of chronic pain patients referred to a multi-disciplinary university pain management clinic and to search for predictors of quality of life. A heterogeneous group of 1208 chronic pain patients referred to the Maastricht university hospital pain clinic participated in this cross-sectional study. At the initial assessment, all patients completed a set of questionnaires on demographic variables, cause, location, pain intensity (McGill pain questionnaire, MPQ), pain coping and beliefs (pain coping and cognition list, PCCL), pain catastrophising (pain catastrophising scale, PCS) and eight dimensions of quality of life (Rand-36). The results showed that the present sample of heterogeneous pain patients reported low quality of life on each domain and significantly lower scores than has been found in previous studies with other Dutch chronic pain populations. Patients with low back pain and multiple pain localisations experienced most functional limitations. Women reported more pain, more catastrophising thoughts about pain, more disability and lower vitality and general health. When tested in a multiple regression analysis, pain catastrophising turned out to be the single most important predictor of quality of life. Especially social functioning, vitality, mental health and general health are significantly associated with pain catastrophising. Patients from a multi-disciplinary university pain clinic experience strikingly low quality of life, whereby low back pain patients and patients with multiple pain localisations have the lowest quality of life. Pain catastrophising showed the strongest association with quality of life, and stronger than pain intensity.
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              Chronic pain in the Republic of Ireland--community prevalence, psychosocial profile and predictors of pain-related disability: results from the Prevalence, Impact and Cost of Chronic Pain (PRIME) study, part 1.

              The aims of the PRIME study (Prevalence, Impact and Cost of Chronic Pain) were 3-fold: (1) to determine the point prevalence of chronic pain in Ireland; (2) to compare the psychological and physical health profiles of those with and without chronic pain; and (3) to explore a predictive model of pain-related disability. A postal survey of 3136 people was conducted with a representative community-based sample of adults. Measures were obtained for sociodemographic variables, physical and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, presence of pain, pain severity, pain-related disability, and illness perceptions. Responses were received from 1204 people. The prevalence of chronic pain was 35.5% (95% CI=32.8-38.2) (n=428). No gender difference in prevalence was found. Prevalence of pain increased with age and was associated with manual employment. The most commonly reported site of pain was the lower back (47.6%); however, multiple pain sites was the norm, with more than 80% of participants reporting more than 1 pain site. Approximately 12% of participants were unable to work or were on reduced work hours because of pain. Of those with chronic pain, 15% met the criteria for clinically relevant depression compared with 2.8% of those without pain. A multiple regression analysis, predicting 67% of variance, showed that pain intensity was the strongest predictor of pain-related disability. Depression and illness perceptions were also predictive of pain-related disability, after controlling for the effects of pain intensity. Chronic pain is a prevalent health problem in Ireland and is associated with significant psychological and functional disability. Psychological factors appear to influence the level of pain-related disability. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                25 February 2019
                : 12
                : 769-777
                [1 ]Department of Neurology, Military Hospital 103, Vietnam Military Medical University, Ha Noi, Vietnam
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine, Vietnam Military Medical University, Ha Dong District, Ha Noi, Vietnam
                [3 ]General Hospital District No 8, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
                [4 ]Hue Medical and Pharmacy University, Hue City, Vietnam
                [5 ]Tien Giang University, My Tho City, Tien Giang Province, Vietnam
                [6 ]Lang Son Medical Institute, Lang Son City, Lang Son Province, Vietnam
                [7 ]Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Military Hospital 103, Vietnam Military Medical University, Ha Noi, Vietnam, drkien103@ 123456gmail.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nguyen Trung Kien, Department of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Military Hospital 103, Vietnam Military Medical University, 261 Phung Hung Road, Ha Dong District, Ha Noi 100000, Vietnam, Tel +84 97 980 0922, Email drkien103@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2019 Chuong et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                survey, chronic pain, impact of pain, health care, vietnamese adults


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