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      Long-Term Complications in Patients With Hypoparathyroidism Evaluated by Biochemical Findings: A Case-Control Study : LONG-TERM COMPLICATIONS IN HypoPT EVALUATED BY BIOCHEMICAL FINDINGS

      1 , 1 , 1
      Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
      Wiley

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          Relation between serum phosphate level and cardiovascular event rate in people with coronary disease.

          Higher levels of serum phosphate are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, especially in the setting of overt hyperphosphatemia. Given the biological importance of phosphorus, it is plausible that higher levels of serum phosphate within the normal range may also be associated with adverse outcomes. We performed a post hoc analysis of data from the Cholesterol And Recurrent Events (CARE) study. Baseline serum phosphate levels were measured in 4127 fasting participants who were randomized to receive pravastatin 40 mg daily or placebo and followed up for a median of 59.7 months. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to examine the association between serum phosphate and adverse clinical outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. During nearly 60 months of follow-up, 375 participants died. A significant association was noted between baseline serum phosphate level and the age-, race-, and sex-adjusted risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio per 1 mg/dL, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.58). After categorization based on baseline phosphate level ( or =4 mg/dL) and further adjustment, a graded independent relation between phosphate and death was observed (P for trend=0.03). For instance, participants with serum phosphate > or =3.5 mg/dL had an adjusted hazard ratio for death of 1.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.59) compared with those with serum phosphate of <3.5 mg/dL. Higher levels of serum phosphate were also associated with increased risk of new heart failure, myocardial infarction, and the composite of coronary death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, but not the risk of stroke. We found a graded independent relation between higher levels of serum phosphate and the risk of death and cardiovascular events in people with prior myocardial infarction, most of whom had serum phosphate levels within the normal range. Given the ready availability and low cost of serum phosphate assays, this finding may prove clinically useful.
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            The nonskeletal effects of vitamin D: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

            Significant controversy has emerged over the last decade concerning the effects of vitamin D on skeletal and nonskeletal tissues. The demonstration that the vitamin D receptor is expressed in virtually all cells of the body and the growing body of observational data supporting a relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D to chronic metabolic, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases have led to widespread utilization of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention and treatment of numerous disorders. In this paper, we review both the basic and clinical aspects of vitamin D in relation to nonskeletal organ systems. We begin by focusing on the molecular aspects of vitamin D, primarily by examining the structure and function of the vitamin D receptor. This is followed by a systematic review according to tissue type of the inherent biological plausibility, the strength of the observational data, and the levels of evidence that support or refute an association between vitamin D levels or supplementation and maternal/child health as well as various disease states. Although observational studies support a strong case for an association between vitamin D and musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, neoplastic, and metabolic disorders, there remains a paucity of large-scale and long-term randomized clinical trials. Thus, at this time, more studies are needed to definitively conclude that vitamin D can offer preventive and therapeutic benefits across a wide range of physiological states and chronic nonskeletal disorders.
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              Milk and dairy consumption and incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

              The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality, but conflicting findings have been reported. The objective was to examine the associations of milk, total dairy products, and high- and low-fat dairy intakes with the risk of CVD [including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke] and total mortality. PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for articles published up to February 2010. Of > 5000 titles evaluated, 17 met the inclusion criteria, all of which were original prospective cohort studies. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed with summarized dose-response data. Milk as the main dairy product was pooled in these analyses. In 17 prospective studies, there were 2283 CVD, 4391 CHD, 15,554 stroke, and 23,949 mortality cases. A modest inverse association was found between milk intake and risk of overall CVD [4 studies; relative risk (RR): 0.94 per 200 mL/d; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99]. Milk intake was not associated with risk of CHD (6 studies; RR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.04), stroke (6 studies; RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.05), or total mortality (8 studies; RR per 200 mL/d: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.03). Limited studies of the association of total dairy products and of total high-fat and total low-fat dairy products (per 200 g/d) with CHD showed no significant associations. This dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies indicates that milk intake is not associated with total mortality but may be inversely associated with overall CVD risk; however, these findings are based on limited numbers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
                J Bone Miner Res
                Wiley
                08840431
                May 2018
                May 2018
                February 14 2018
                : 33
                : 5
                : 822-831
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine; Aarhus University Hospital; Aarhus Denmark
                Article
                10.1002/jbmr.3368
                4c6281e6-88c0-4121-8a36-ed6c3a2ca04c
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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