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      The Influence of Eccentric Scanning of Optical Coherence Tomography on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Analysis in Normal Subjects

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      Ophthalmologica

      S. Karger AG

      Optical coherence tomography, Retinal nerve fiber layer, Glaucoma

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          Abstract

          Aim: To investigate the influence of eccentric scanning on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) analysis using Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal Koreans when the eccentricity of scanning occurs in 4 different directions. Methods: Thirty-one eyes of 31 persons underwent 1 concentric disk-centered and 4 superiorly, inferiorly, nasally and temporally eccentric RNFL OCT scans. Results: The average RNFL thickness measured by temporally eccentric scanning (115.1 μm) was significantly greater when compared with that found by concentric scanning (107.1 μm; p < 0.0001). The proportions of eyes outside normal limits on the RNFL analysis map using the criterion of ≥1 clock hour abnormal at the <1% level in superiorly (12/31, 38.7%), nasally (16/32, 51.6%) and temporally (12/31, 38.7%) eccentric scans were significantly different in comparison with the concentric (4/31, 12.9%) scan (p < 0.05). Conclusion: An off-centered OCT scan affected RNFL thickness measurement and its interpretation.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Determinants of normal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by Stratus OCT.

          To determine the effects of age, optic disc area, ethnicity, eye, gender, and axial length on the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in the normal human eye as measured by Stratus OCT (optical coherence tomography). Cross-sectional observational study. Three hundred twenty-eight normal subjects 18 to 85 years old. Peripapillary Fast RNFL scans performed by Stratus OCT with a nominal diameter of 3.46 mm centered on the optic disc were performed on one randomly selected eye of each subject. Linear regression analysis of the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, eye, axial length, and optic disc area on peripapillary RNFL thickness. The mean RNFL thickness for the entire population was 100.1 microm (standard deviation, 11.6). Thinner RNFL measurements were associated with older age (P<0.001); being Caucasian, versus being either Hispanic or Asian (P = 0.006); greater axial length (P<0.001); or smaller optic disc area (P = 0.010). For every decade of increased age, mean RNFL thickness measured thinner by approximately 2.0 microm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.8). For every 1-mm-greater axial length, mean RNFL thickness measured thinner by approximately 2.2 microm (95% CI, 1.1-3.4). For every increase in square millimeter of optic disc area, mean RNFL thickness increased by approximately 3.3 microm (95% CI, 0.6-5.6). Comparisons between ethnic groups revealed that Caucasians had mean RNFL values (98.1+/-10.9 microm) slightly thinner than those of Hispanics (103.7+/-11.6 microm; P = 0.022) or Asians (105.8+/-9.2 microm; P = 0.043). There was no relationship between RNFL thickness and eye or gender. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as measured by Stratus OCT, varies significantly with age, ethnicity, axial length, and optic disc area. These variables may need to be taken into account when evaluating patients for diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma, particularly at the lower boundary of the normal range. Due to the relatively small numbers of subjects of Asian and African descent in the normative database, conclusions regarding the effect of ethnicity should be interpreted with caution.
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            Reproducibility of nerve fiber thickness, macular thickness, and optic nerve head measurements using StratusOCT.

            The measurement reproducibility of the third generation of commercial optical coherence tomography, OCT-3 (StratusOCT, software ver. A2, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA) was investigated. The nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness, macula thickness map, and optic nerve head (ONH) parameters in normal eyes were studied. Ten normal subjects were imaged six times (three before and three after dilation) per day, and the series was repeated on three different days. The order of the scans before pupil dilation was randomized in each of the 3 days of scanning. After pupil dilation, the scans were also randomized in each of the 3 days of scanning. Each series was performed separately for standard-density (128 A-scans per macular and ONH image and 256 A-scans per NFL image) and high-density (512 A-scans per image for all three scan types) scanning. The mean macular thickness was 235 +/- 9.8 micro m. A-scan density (or image acquisition speed) had a statistically significant effect (P < 0.05) on the reproducibility of the mean macular thickness, macular volume, and a few sectors of the macular map. No significant dilation effect was found for any of the macular parameters. The best intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; 94%) for macular scans was found for dilated high-density scanning, with an intervisit SD of 2.4 micro m and an intravisit SD of 2.2 micro m. The mean NFL thickness for standard scanning was 98 +/- 9 micro m. NFL reproducibility showed mixed results and had interactions between scan density and dilation for some parameters. For most of the NFL parameters, reproducibility was better with dilated standard-density scanning. The mean NFL thickness ICC for dilated standard scanning was 79%, with an intervisit SD of 2.5 micro m and an intravisit SD of 1.6 micro m. For the ONH analysis, the reproducibility was better for dilated standard-density scanning for almost all the parameters, except for disc area, horizontal integrated rim volume, and vertical integrated rim area, which were better before dilation. The best reproducibility was found for cup-to-disc ratio (ICC = 97%, with intervisit SD of 0.04 micro m and intravisit SD of 0.02 micro m). StratusOCT demonstrated reproducible measurements of NFL thickness, macular thickness, and optic nerve head parameters. The best reproducibility was found for dilated standard scanning for NFL and ONH parameters and for dilated high-density scanning for macular parameters.
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              Reproducibility of retinal nerve fiber thickness measurements using the stratus OCT in normal and glaucomatous eyes.

              To determine the reproducibility of Stratus Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements around the optic nerve in normal and glaucomatous eyes. One eye was chosen at random from 88 normal subjects and 59 glaucomatous subjects distributed among mild, moderate, and severe glaucoma, determined by visual field testing. Subjects underwent six RNFL thickness measurements performed by a single operator over a 30-minute period with a brief rest between sessions. Three scans were taken with the high-density Standard RNFL protocol, and three were taken with the Fast RNFL protocol, alternating between scan protocols. Reliability, as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), was calculated for the overall mean RNFL thickness and for each quadrant. The ICC for the mean Standard RNFL thickness (and lower 95% confidence interval [CI]) in normal and glaucomatous eyes was 0.97 (0.96 CI) and 0.98 (0.97 CI), respectively. The ICC for the mean Fast RNFL thickness in normal and glaucomatous eyes was 0.95 (0.93 CI) and 0.97 (0.95 CI), respectively. Quadrant ICCs ranged between 0.79 and 0.97, with the nasal quadrant being the least reproducible of all four quadrants, using either the Standard or Fast RNFL program. The test-retest variability ranged from 3.5 microm for the average RNFL thickness measurements in normal eyes to 13.8 microm for the nasal quadrant measurements in glaucomatous eyes, which appeared to be the most variable. Reproducibility of RNFL measurements using the Stratus OCT is excellent in normal and glaucomatous eyes. The nasal quadrant appears to be the most variable measurement. Standard RNFL and Fast RNFL scans are equally reproducible and yield comparable measurements. These findings have implications for the diagnosis of glaucoma and glaucomatous progression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2009
                August 2009
                29 May 2009
                : 223
                : 5
                : 326-332
                Affiliations
                Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Article
                221836 Ophthalmologica 2009;223:326–332
                10.1159/000221836
                19478532
                © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 28, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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