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      Effect of Needle Tip Position on Contrast Media Dispersion Pattern in Transforaminal Epidural Injection Using Kambin’s Triangle Approach

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Dispersion of contrast media into the anterior epidural space is correlated with better outcomes after transforaminal epidural injection (TFEI). Needle tip position is an important factor affecting the pattern of contrast media dispersion. It is difficult to advance the needle medially to the interpedicle line with a conventional approach, especially in a severe spinal stenosis. But, with Kambin’s triangle approach, the needle can be advanced more medially even in the severe stenosis. We aimed to compare contrast media dispersion patterns according to the needle tip position in TFEI with Kambin’s triangle approach.

          Patients and Methods

          This single-center retrospective study analyzed fluoroscopic data of patients who underwent TFEI from March 2019 to July 2019. Data on the history of lumbar spinal fusion surgery and MRI findings were collected. The needle tip position was evaluated in three positions on fluoroscopic images (final anteroposterior [AP] view): extraforaminal (EF), lateral foramen (LF), and medial foramen (MF). Contrast media dispersion into the epidural space (epidural pattern) in the AP view was evaluated as a dependent variable. The relationship between the contrast media dispersion pattern and needle tip position was analyzed, and other factors affecting the contrast media dispersion pattern were identified.

          Results

          Ninety-eight TFEI cases were analyzed (51 LF, 35 MF, and 12 EF). An epidural pattern of dispersion was observed more frequently in the LF and MF groups than in the EF group. The LF and MF groups showed no significant difference in epidural pattern frequency. On logistic regression analysis, needle tip position emerged as a major factor influencing epidural pattern, while other factors including spine conditions had no significant effect.

          Conclusion

          Positioning the needle tip medial to the pedicle helps in the spread of the contrast media into the epidural space during TFEI with Kambin’s approach. Factors other than the needle tip position did not significantly affect the contrast media dispersion pattern.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 31

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          Lumbar disc nomenclature: version 2.0: Recommendations of the combined task forces of the North American Spine Society, the American Society of Spine Radiology and the American Society of Neuroradiology.

          The paper ''Nomenclature and classification of lumbar disc pathology, recommendations of the combined task forces of the North American Spine Society, the American Society of Spine Radiology and the American Society of Neuroradiology,'' was published in 2001 in Spine (© Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins). It was authored by David Fardon, MD, and Pierre Milette, MD, and formally endorsed by the American Society of Spine Radiology (ASSR), American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR), and North American Spine Society (NASS). Its purpose was to promote greater clarity and consistency of usage of spinal terminology, and it has served this purpose well for over a decade. Since 2001, there has been sufficient evolution in our understanding of the lumbar disc to suggest the need for revision and updating of the original document. The revised document is presented here, and it represents the consensus recommendations of contemporary combined task forces of the ASSR, ASNR, and NASS. This article reflects changes consistent with current concepts in radiologic and clinical care.
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            Interventional techniques: evidence-based practice guidelines in the management of chronic spinal pain.

            The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation by specialists from academic and clinical practices. Study design consisted of formulation of essentials of guidelines and a series of potential evidence linkages representing conclusions and statements about relationships between clinical interventions and outcomes. The elements of the guideline preparation process included literature searches, literature synthesis, systematic review, consensus evaluation, open forum presentation, and blinded peer review. Methodologic quality evaluation criteria utilized included the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) criteria, Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) criteria, and Cochrane review criteria. The designation of levels of evidence was from Level I (conclusive), Level II (strong), Level III (moderate), Level IV (limited), to Level V (indeterminate). Among the diagnostic interventions, the accuracy of facet joint nerve blocks is strong in the diagnosis of lumbar and cervical facet joint pain, whereas, it is moderate in the diagnosis of thoracic facet joint pain. The evidence is strong for lumbar discography, whereas, the evidence is limited for cervical and thoracic discography. The evidence for transforaminal epidural injections or selective nerve root blocks in the preoperative evaluation of patients with negative or inconclusive imaging studies is moderate. The evidence for diagnostic sacroiliac joint injections is moderate. The evidence for therapeutic lumbar intraarticular facet injections is moderate for short-term and long-term improvement, whereas, it is limited for cervical facet joint injections. The evidence for lumbar and cervical medial branch blocks is moderate. The evidence for medial branch neurotomy is moderate. The evidence for caudal epidural steroid injections is strong for short-term relief and moderate for long-term relief in managing chronic low back and radicular pain, and limited in managing pain of postlumbar laminectomy syndrome. The evidence for interlaminar epidural steroid injections is strong for short-term relief and limited for long-term relief in managing lumbar radiculopathy, whereas, for cervical radiculopathy the evidence is moderate. The evidence for transforaminal epidural steroid injections is strong for short-term and moderate for long-term improvement in managing lumbar nerve root pain, whereas, it is moderate for cervical nerve root pain and limited in managing pain secondary to lumbar post laminectomy syndrome and spinal stenosis. The evidence for percutaneous epidural adhesiolysis is strong. For spinal endoscopic adhesiolysis, the evidence is strong for short-term relief and moderate for long-term relief. For sacroiliac intraarticular injections, the evidence is moderate for short-term relief and limited for long-term relief. The evidence for radiofrequency neurotomy for sacroiliac joint pain is limited. The evidence for intradiscal electrothermal therapy is moderate in managing chronic discogenic low back pain, whereas for annuloplasty the evidence is limited. Among the various techniques utilized for percutaneous disc decompression, the evidence is moderate for short-term and limited for long-term relief for automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy, and percutaneous laser discectomy, whereas it is limited for nucleoplasty and for DeKompressor technology. For vertebral augmentation procedures, the evidence is moderate for both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The evidence for spinal cord stimulation in failed back surgery syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome is strong for short-term relief and moderate for long-term relief. The evidence for implantable intrathecal infusion systems is strong for short-term relief and moderate for long-term relief. These guidelines include the evaluation of evidence for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in managing chronic spinal pain and recommendations for managing spinal pain. However, these guidelines do not constitute inflexible treatment recommendations. These guidelines also do not represent a "standard of care."
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              A practical MRI grading system for lumbar foraminal stenosis.

              This study aimed to evaluate the reproducibility of a new grading system for lumbar foraminal stenosis. Four grades were developed for lumbar foraminal stenosis on the basis of sagittal MRI. Grade 0 refers to the absence of foraminal stenosis; grade 1 refers to mild foraminal stenosis showing perineural fat obliteration in the two opposing directions, vertical or transverse; grade 2 refers to moderate foraminal stenosis showing perineural fat obliteration in the four directions without morphologic change, both vertical and transverse directions; and grade 3 refers to severe foraminal stenosis showing nerve root collapse or morphologic change. A total of 576 foramina in 96 patients were analyzed (from L3-L4 to L5-S1). Two experienced radiologists independently assessed the sagittal MR images. Interobserver agreement between the two radiologists and intraobserver agreement by one reader were analyzed using kappa statistics. According to reader 1, grade 1 foraminal stenosis was found in 33 foramina, grade 2 in six, and grade 3 in seven. According to reader 2, grade 1 foraminal stenosis was found in 32 foramina, grade 2 in six, and grade 3 in eight. Interobserver agreement in the grading of foraminal stenosis between the two readers was found to be nearly perfect (kappa value: right L3-L4, 1.0; left L3-L4, 0.905; right L4-L5, 0.929; left L4-L5, 0.942; right L5-S1, 0.919; and left L5-S1, 0.909). In intraobserver agreement by reader 1, grade 1 foraminal stenosis was found in 34 foramina, grade 2 in eight, and grade 3 in seven. Intraobserver agreement in the grading of foraminal stenosis was also found to be nearly perfect (kappa value: right L3-L4, 0.883; left L3-L4, 1.00; right L4-L5, 0.957; left L4-L5, 0.885; right L5-S1, 0.800; and left L5-S1, 0.905). The new grading system for foraminal stenosis of the lumbar spine showed nearly perfect interobserver and intraobserver agreement and would be helpful for clinical study and routine practice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                jpr
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                10 November 2020
                2020
                : 13
                : 2869-2878
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Pain Center, Pohang Wooridul Hospital , Pohang-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jinyoung Oh Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine , 211 Eonju-Ro, Gangnan-Gu, Seoul, Republic of KoreaTel +82-2-2019-3600Fax +82-2-2019-4833 Email sgcms3@gmail.com
                Article
                270450
                10.2147/JPR.S270450
                7667514
                33204148
                © 2020 Lee et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 9, References: 31, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funded by: information is not available;
                Funding information is not available.
                Categories
                Original Research

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