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      Genetic variation in metabolizing enzyme and transporter genes: comprehensive assessment in 3 major East Asian subpopulations with comparison to Caucasians and Africans.

      Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
      African Continental Ancestry Group, Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase, genetics, Asian Continental Ancestry Group, Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System, European Continental Ancestry Group, Gene Frequency, Genotype, Humans, Isoenzymes, Methyltransferases, Organic Anion Transporters

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          Abstract

          The advent of high-throughput technologies has proven valuable in the assessment of genetic differences and their effects on drug activation, metabolism, disposition, and transport. However, most studies to date have focused on a small number of genes or few alleles, some of which are rare and therefore observed infrequently or lacked rigorous ethnic characterization, thus reducing the ability to extrapolate within and among populations. In this study, the authors comprehensively assessed the allele frequencies of 165 variants comprising 27 drug-metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) genes from 2188 participants across 3 major ethnic populations: Caucasians, Africans, and East Asians. This sample size was sufficiently large to demonstrate genetic differences among these major ethnic groups while concomitantly confirming similarities among East Asian subpopulations (Korean, Han Chinese, and Japanese). A comprehensive presentation of allele and genotype frequencies is included in the online supplement, and 3 of the most widely studied cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes, CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP2C9; 2 non-CYP enzymes, NAT1 and TMPT; and 2 transporter genes, SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1, are presented herein according to ethnic classification.

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