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      Diversification rates, host plant shifts and an updated molecular phylogeny of Andean Eois moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

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          Abstract

          Eois is one of the best-investigated genera of tropical moths. Its close association with Piper plants has inspired numerous studies on life histories, phylogeny and evolutionary biology. This study provides an updated view on phylogeny, host plant use and temporal patterns of speciation in Eois. Using sequence data (2776 bp) from one mitochondrial (COI) and one nuclear gene (Ef1-alpha) for 221 Eois species, we confirm and reinforce previous findings regarding temporal patterns of diversification. Deep diversification within Andean Eois took place in the Miocene followed by a sustained high rate of diversification until the Pleistocene when a pronounced slowdown of speciation is evident. In South America, Eois diversification is very likely to be primarily driven by the Andean uplift which occurred concurrently with the entire evolutionary history of Eois. A massively expanded dataset enabled an in-depth look into the phylogenetic signal contained in host plant usage. This revealed several independent shifts from Piper to other host plant genera and families. Seven shifts to Peperomia, the sister genus of Piper were detected, indicating that the shift to Peperomia was an easy one compared to the singular shifts to the Chloranthaceae, Siparunaceae and the Piperacean genus Manekia. The potential for close co-evolution of Eois with Piper host plants is therefore bound to be limited to smaller subsets within Neotropical Eois instead of a frequently proposed genus-wide co-evolutionary scenario. In regards to Eois systematics we confirm the monophyly of Neotropical Eois in relation to their Old World counterparts. A tentative biogeographical hypothesis is presented suggesting that Eois originated in tropical Asia and subsequently colonized the Neotropics and Africa. Within Neotropical Eois we were able to identify the existence of six clades not recognized in previous studies and confirm and reinforce the monophyly of all 9 previously delimited infrageneric clades.

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          Most cited references 68

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          Speciation in amazonian forest birds.

           J Haffer (1969)
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            Ecology and the origin of species.

            The ecological hypothesis of speciation is that reproductive isolation evolves ultimately as a consequence of divergent natural selection on traits between environments. Ecological speciation is general and might occur in allopatry or sympatry, involve many agents of natural selection, and result from a combination of adaptive processes. The main difficulty of the ecological hypothesis has been the scarcity of examples from nature, but several potential cases have recently emerged. I review the mechanisms that give rise to new species by divergent selection, compare ecological speciation with its alternatives, summarize recent tests in nature, and highlight areas requiring research.
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              BUTTERFLIES AND PLANTS: A STUDY IN COEVOLUTION

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SoftwareRole: SupervisionRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: ResourcesRole: VisualizationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Data curationRole: ResourcesRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Funding acquisitionRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                27 December 2017
                2017
                : 12
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research, Division of Tropical Ecology and Animal Biodiversity, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
                [2 ] Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie mit Phyletischem Museum, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Jena, Germany
                [3 ] Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
                [4 ] Institute of Entomology, Department of Ecology, Biology Centre, The Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic
                Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, CHINA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-17-23522
                10.1371/journal.pone.0188430
                5744940
                29281664
                © 2017 Strutzenberger et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, Pages: 22
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft;
                Award ID: Fi 547/10-2
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Fi 547/10-2. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Plants
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Evolutionary Biology
                Evolutionary Systematics
                Phylogenetics
                Phylogenetic Analysis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Taxonomy
                Evolutionary Systematics
                Phylogenetics
                Phylogenetic Analysis
                Computer and Information Sciences
                Data Management
                Taxonomy
                Evolutionary Systematics
                Phylogenetics
                Phylogenetic Analysis
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Ecology
                Ecological Metrics
                Species Diversity
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Arthropoda
                Insects
                Moths and Butterflies
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                Evolutionary Biology
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                Phylogenetics
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                Taxonomy
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                Plant Phylogenetics
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                Evolutionary Systematics
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                Plant Phylogenetics
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Evolutionary Biology
                Organismal Evolution
                Plant Evolution
                Plant Phylogenetics
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Plant Science
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                Plant Phylogenetics
                Custom metadata
                DNA sequences are available from Genbank. Please see S2 Table for a full list of included taxa and Genbank accession numbers of associated sequences.

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