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      Food as a trigger for abdominal angioedema attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema

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          Abstract

          Background

          Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare inherited disease. In most HAE-affected subjects, defined trigger factors precede angioedema attacks. Mechanisms of how trigger factors stimulate the contact activation pathway with bradykinin generation are not well elucidated. In recent studies, hypersensitivity reactions and food were stated as relevant triggers. We investigated HAE affected people for possible hypersensitivity reactions or intolerances and their relation in triggering angioedema attacks.

          Methods

          A questionnaire was filled in, recording date of birth, gender, and self-reported angioedema attacks associated with the ingestion of foodstuffs, administration of drugs, hymenoptera stings and hypersensitivity reactions against inhalation allergens. All participants performed a skin prick test against inhalation allergens and food. In patients who stated an association of possible hypersensitivity with angioedema, a serological ImmunoCAP test was also performed.

          Results

          From the 27 women and 15 men analyzed, 79% stated trigger factors. From those food was mentioned in 36%. The suspected food included tomato, green salad, fish, citrus fruits, apple, onion, garlic, cheese, chili, kiwi, milk, tree nuts, strawberry, pineapple, shrimps, bread, banana, leek, chicken and alcohol, and were associated with abdominal angioedema. Neither the skin prick test nor the ImmunoCAP-test turned out positive for the tested food allergens.

          Conclusion

          Food seems to be a relevant trigger factor, causing angioedema in HAE affected patients. The reason, however, is not IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, but most probably an intolerance reaction to food products.

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          Most cited references 27

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          The humanistic burden of hereditary angioedema: Impact on health-related quality of life, productivity, and depression.

          Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent acute attacks of swelling of the larynx, abdomen, and periphery. This study was designed to assess the humanistic burden of illness associated with HAE. HAE burden was assessed via a web-based survey of patients that solicited information on attack characterization, treatment, side effects, pain, and functional and emotional burden of disease management. In addition to HAE-specific sections, the survey used three standardized instruments to compare HAE patient data to normative (healthy) and chronic disease populations: the 12-Item Short Form (SF-12) Health Survey, the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health (WPAI-GH) questionnaire, and the Hamilton Depression Inventory-Short Form (HDI-SF). A total of 457 HAE patients responded to the survey (response rate, ∼19%). Patients reported significantly poorer health-related quality of life versus population norms, based on the SF-12 Physical Component Summary (mean, 43.7 versus 49.6; p 8.5, indicative of depressive symptomatology. Productivity was also markedly impaired in all WPAI-GH categories, including 34% overall work impairment. Because of their most recent HAE attack, workers lost a mean of 3.3 days; students lost a mean of 1.9 days. HAE results in considerable humanistic burden to patients across physical and mental health domains; negatively impacts education, career, and work productivity; and compounds the substantial economic burdens that are reported separately.
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            Mast cells increase vascular permeability by heparin-initiated bradykinin formation in vivo.

            Activated mast cells trigger edema in allergic and inflammatory disease. We report a paracrine mechanism by which mast cell-released heparin increases vascular permeability in vivo. Heparin activated the protease factor XII, which initiates bradykinin formation in plasma. Targeting factor XII or kinin B2 receptors abolished heparin-triggered leukocyte-endothelium adhesion and interfered with a mast cell-driven drop in blood pressure in rodents. Intravital laser scanning microscopy and tracer measurements showed heparin-driven fluid extravasation in mouse skin microvessels. Ablation of factor XII or kinin B2 receptors abolished heparin-induced skin edema and protected mice from allergen-activated mast cell-driven leakage. In contrast, heparin and activated mast cells induced excessive edema in mice deficient in the major inhibitor of factor XII, C1 esterase inhibitor. Allergen exposure triggered edema attacks in hereditary angioedema patients, lacking C1 esterase inhibitor. The data indicate that heparin-initiated bradykinin formation plays a fundamental role in mast cell-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Hereditary and acquired C1-inhibitor deficiency: biological and clinical characteristics in 235 patients.

               A Agostoni,  M Cicardi (1992)
              Two hundred and twenty-six patients with inherited C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema (HAE), have been studied. They belonged to 80 unrelated families, and in 11 of them C1-INH was functionally deficient but antigenically normal (type II HAE). Genetic analysis of type 1 families demonstrated restriction fragment length polymorphisms in 11% and abnormal mRNAs in 25%. In type II families, the site of the mutation appeared to determine the rate of catabolism of the dysfunctional C1-INH and its antigenic plasma levels. Clinical symptoms (subcutaneous and mucous swellings) generally first appeared within the second decade of life. The frequency of symptoms was highly variable from patient to patient, but a few patients remained asymptomatic throughout their lives. Prophylactic treatment with attenuated androgens was administered to 59 patients and was totally effective in 57, without significant side effects. Sixty-seven laryngeal and 15 abdominal attacks were treated with C1-INH plasma concentrate, yielding initial regression of symptoms in 30 to 90 minutes. The acquired deficiency of C1-INH, also known as acquired angioedema, was diagnosed in 9 patients. Eight of them had an autoantibody against C1-INH; the only patient without the autoantibody had associated chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Prophylactic treatment with attenuated androgens was effective in this last patient, while those with the autoantibody against C1-INH benefited from prophylaxis with antifibrinolytic agents. Replacement therapy with C1-INH concentrate was necessary only for patients with autoantibodies and required doses 3 or 4 times higher than those used in HAE.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Urs.Steiner@usz.ch
                lea.koelliker@bluewin.ch
                Christina.weber@usz.ch
                Peter.schmid@usz.ch
                Elsbeth.Probst-Mueller@usz.ch
                walter.wuillemin@luks.ch
                Arthur.Helbling@insel.ch
                Journal
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet J Rare Dis
                Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                1750-1172
                5 June 2018
                5 June 2018
                2018
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0478 9977, GRID grid.412004.3, Department of Clinical Immunology, , University Hospital Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0478 9977, GRID grid.412004.3, Allergy Unit, Department of Dermatology, , University Hospital Zurich, ; Zurich, Switzerland
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8587 8621, GRID grid.413354.4, Division of Haematology and Central Haematology Laboratory, Department of Internal Medicine, , Cantonal Hospital Lucerne and University of Berne, ; Lucerne, Switzerland
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0479 0855, GRID grid.411656.1, Division of Allergology, Department of Rheumatology,Immunology and Allergology, , University Hospital Berne, ; Berne, Switzerland
                Article
                832
                10.1186/s13023-018-0832-4
                5987415
                29866145
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ulrich Müller-Gierok Foundation
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

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