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      Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in the Elderly Improve Quality of Life: Evidence Far from Certain

      * ,

      Cardiology

      S. Karger AG

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          Most cited references 8

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          Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials.

          Many trials have been done to compare primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with thrombolytic therapy for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to look at the combined results of these trials and to ascertain which reperfusion therapy is most effective. We did a search of published work and identified 23 trials, which together randomly assigned 7739 thrombolytic-eligible patients with ST-segment elevation AMI to primary PTCA (n=3872) or thrombolytic therapy (n=3867). Streptokinase was used in eight trials (n=1837), and fibrin-specific agents in 15 (n=5902). Most patients who received thrombolytic therapy (76%, n=2939) received a fibrin-specific agent. Stents were used in 12 trials, and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were used in eight. We identified short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of death, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke, and did subgroup analyses to assess the effect of type of thrombolytic agent used and the strategy of emergent hospital transfer for primary PTCA. All analyses were done with and without inclusion of the SHOCK trial data. Primary PTCA was better than thrombolytic therapy at reducing overall short-term death (7% [n=270] vs 9% [360]; p=0.0002), death excluding the SHOCK trial data (5% [199] vs 7% [276]; p=0.0003), non-fatal reinfarction (3% [80] vs 7% [222]; p<0.0001), stroke (1% [30] vs 2% [64]; p=0.0004), and the combined endpoint of death, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke (8% [253] vs 14% [442]; p<0.0001). The results seen with primary PTCA remained better than those seen with thrombolytic therapy during long-term follow-up, and were independent of both the type of thrombolytic agent used, and whether or not the patient was transferred for primary PTCA. Primary PTCA is more effective than thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of ST-segment elevation AMI.
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            Comparison of early invasive and conservative strategies in patients with unstable coronary syndromes treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban.

            There is continued debate as to whether a routine, early invasive strategy is superior to a conservative strategy for the management of unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation. We enrolled 2220 patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who had electrocardiographic evidence of changes in the ST segment or T wave, elevated levels of cardiac markers, a history of coronary artery disease, or all three findings. All patients were treated with aspirin, heparin, and the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban. They were randomly assigned to an early invasive strategy, which included routine catheterization within 4 to 48 hours and revascularization as appropriate, or to a more conservative (selectively invasive) strategy, in which catheterization was performed only if the patient had objective evidence of recurrent ischemia or an abnormal stress test. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and rehospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome at six months. At six months, the rate of the primary end point was 15.9 percent with use of the early invasive strategy and 19.4 percent with use of the conservative strategy (odds ratio, 0.78; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.97; P=0.025). The rate of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at six months was similarly reduced (7.3 percent vs. 9.5 percent; odds ratio, 0.74; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.54 to 1.00; P<0.05). In patients with unstable angina and myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation who were treated with the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor tirofiban, the use of an early invasive strategy significantly reduced the incidence of major cardiac events. These data support a policy involving broader use of the early inhibition of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in combination with an early invasive strategy in such patients.
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              Monitoring the quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease.

               S Fihn,  S. Winder,  J Spertus (1994)
              Monitoring the outcomes of treatment and quantifying patients' functional status have assumed a prominent role in both clinical trials and quality assurance programs. Because patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) may have comorbid illnesses, and because generic health status questionnaires may not focus on symptoms and impairments unique to coronary disease, a generic measure of health status may not be sufficient to detect important changes in patients' CAD. The responsiveness to clinical change of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ), a disease-specific measure for CAD, was compared with that of the Short Form-36, a generic measure of health status. Both questionnaires were serially administered, 3 months apart, to 45 patients undergoing coronary angioplasty and to 130 patients with stable CAD. Most scales of both questionnaires improved significantly after coronary angioplasty. The responsiveness statistics of the SAQ exceeded those of the Short Form-36. Among 130 patients with initially stable angina, 33 deteriorated, 79 remained stable, and 18 improved over 3 months of observation. Mean SAQ scores changed significantly and appropriately in each of these groups. In contrast, none of the Short Form-36 scales detected these more subtle changes. Although useful in assessing overall function, a generic health status measure, such as the Short Form-36, may not be responsive enough to detect important clinical changes in patients' CAD. A disease-specific instrument, such as the SAQ, can be an important and relevant outcome measure in clinical trials or quality assurance programs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2014
                August 2014
                05 August 2014
                : 129
                : 1
                : 44-45
                Affiliations
                Cardiovascular Section, Department of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and VA Medical Center, Oklahoma City, Okla., USA
                Author notes
                *Udho Thadani, MD, MRCP, FRCPC, FACC, FAHA, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Consultant Cardiologist VA Medical Center, 920 SL Young Boulevard, WP 3010, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (USA), E-Mail udho-thadani@ouhsc.edu
                Article
                364997 Cardiology 2014;129:44-45
                10.1159/000364997
                25096401
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 2
                Categories
                Editorial Comment

                General medicine, Neurology, Cardiovascular Medicine, Internal medicine, Nephrology

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