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      Distribution and conservation status of the herpetofauna of Dugi Otok Island, Croatia

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      Herpetozoa

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The first overview of the amphibians and reptiles of Dugi Otok Island, Northern Dalmatia, is presented, based on the published data and new records collected during the last twenty years. A total of 15 species are present on the island, of which only one was not recorded on our surveys. In comparison to other islands of Northern Dalmatia, Dugi Otok is the second most diverse island in terms of herpetofauna, just after Pag Island. The main threats to the amphibians and reptiles on the island are the disappearance and degradation of aquatic habitats, the abandonment and succession of traditional agricultural fields and olive groves and the increasing presence of several invasive species.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Systematics, biogeography, and evolution of Hemidactylus geckos (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) elucidated using mitochondrial DNA sequences.

          With more than 80 species inhabiting all warm continental land masses and hundreds of intervening continental and oceanic islands, Hemidactylus geckos are one of the most species-rich and widely distributed of all reptile genera. They consequently represent an excellent model for biogeographic, ecological, and evolutionary studies. A molecular phylogeny for Hemidactylus is presented here, based on 702 bp of mtDNA (303 bp cytochrome b and 399 bp 12S rRNA) from 166 individuals of 30 species of Hemidactylus plus Briba brasiliana, Cosymbotus platyurus, and several outgroups. The phylogeny indicates that Hemidactylus may have initially undergone rapid radiation, and long-distance dispersal is more extensive than in any other reptilian genus. In the last 15 My, African lineages have naturally crossed the Atlantic Ocean at least twice. They also colonized the Gulf of Guinea, Cape Verde and Socotra islands, again sometimes on more than one occasion. Many extensive range extensions have occurred much more recently, sometimes with devastating consequences for other geckos. These colonizations are likely to be largely anthropogenic, involving the 'weedy' commensal species, H. brookii s. lat, H. mabouia, H. turcicus, H. garnotii, and H. frenatus. These species collectively have colonized the Mediterranean region, tropical Africa, much of the Americas and hundreds of islands in the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. Five well-supported clades are discernable in Hemidactylus, with the African H. fasciatus unallocated. 1. Tropical Asian clade: (Cosymbotus platyurus (H. bowringii, H. karenorum, H. garnotii)) (H. flaviviridis (Asian H. brookii, H. frenatus)). 2. African H. angulatus and Caribbean H. haitianus. 3. Arid clade, of NE Africa, SW Asia, etc.: (H. modestus (H. citernii, H. foudai)) (H. pumilio (H. granti, H. dracaenacolus) (H. persicus, H. macropholis, H. robustus, H. turcicus (H. oxyrhinus (H. homoeolepis, H. forbesii))). 4. H. mabouia clade (H. yerburii, H. mabouia). 5. African-Atlantic clade: H. platycephalus ((H. agrius, H. palaichthus) (H. longicephalus, H. greeffi, H. bouvieri, Briba brasiliana))). Cosymbotus and Briba are synonymized with Hemidactylus, and African populations of H. brookii separated as H. angulatus, with which H. haitianus may be conspecific. Some comparatively well-sampled widespread species show high genetic variability (10-15% divergence) and need revision, including Cosymbotus platyurus, H. bowringii, Asian H. brookii, H. frenatus, H. angulatus, and H. macropholis. In contrast, most populations of H. mabouia and H. turcicus are very uniform (1-2% divergence). Plasticity of some of the morphological features of Hemidactylus is confirmed, although retention of primitive morphologies also occurs.
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            The diet of feral cats on islands: a review and a call for more studies

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              Phylogeography of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis sicula, as revealed by mitochondrial DNA sequences.

              In a phylogeographical survey of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis sicula, DNA sequence variation along an 887-bp segment of the cytochrome b gene was examined in 96 specimens from 86 localities covering the distribution range of the species. In addition, parts of the 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes from 12 selected specimens as representatives of more divergent cytochrome b haploclades were sequenced (together about 950 bp). Six phylogeographical main groups were found, three representing samples of the nominate subspecies Podarcis sicula sicula and closely related subspecies and the other three comprising Podarcis sicula campestris as well as all subspecies described from northern and eastern Adriatic islands. In southern Italy a population group with morphological characters of P. s. sicula but with the mitochondrial DNA features of P. s. campestris was detected indicating a probably recent hybridization zone. The present distribution patterns were interpreted as the consequence of natural events like retreats to glacial refuges and postglacial area expansions, but also as the results of multiple introductions by man.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Herpetozoa
                Herpetozoa
                Pensoft Publishers
                2682-955X
                1013-4425
                November 13 2020
                November 13 2020
                : 33
                : 191-205
                Article
                10.3897/herpetozoa.33.e53525
                © 2020

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