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      Electrospun Fibrous Scaffolds for Small-Diameter Blood Vessels: A Review

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          Abstract

          Small-diameter blood vessels (SDBVs) are still a challenging task to prepare due to the occurrence of thrombosis formation, intimal hyperplasia, and aneurysmal dilation. Electrospinning technique, as a promising tissue engineering approach, can fabricate polymer fibrous scaffolds that satisfy requirements on the construction of extracellular matrix (ECM) of native blood vessel and promote the adhesion, proliferation, and growth of cells. In this review, we summarize the polymers that are deployed for the fabrication of SDBVs and classify them into three categories, synthetic polymers, natural polymers, and hybrid polymers. Furthermore, the biomechanical properties and the biological activities of the electrospun SBVs including anti-thrombogenic ability and cell response are discussed. Polymer blends seem to be a strategic way to fabricate SDBVs because it combines both suitable biomechanical properties coming from synthetic polymers and favorable sites to cell attachment coming from natural polymers.

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          Most cited references 85

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          Nanometre diameter fibres of polymer, produced by electrospinning

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            Electrospinning: applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering.

             L V Knorring,  J Sill (2008)
            Despite its long history and some preliminary work in tissue engineering nearly 30 years ago, electrospinning has not gained widespread interest as a potential polymer processing technique for applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery until the last 5-10 years. This renewed interest can be attributed to electrospinning's relative ease of use, adaptability, and the ability to fabricate fibers with diameters on the nanometer size scale. Furthermore, the electrospinning process affords the opportunity to engineer scaffolds with micro to nanoscale topography and high porosity similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). The inherently high surface to volume ratio of electrospun scaffolds can enhance cell attachment, drug loading, and mass transfer properties. Various materials can be electrospun including: biodegradable, non-degradable, and natural materials. Electrospun fibers can be oriented or arranged randomly, giving control over both the bulk mechanical properties and the biological response to the scaffold. Drugs ranging from antibiotics and anticancer agents to proteins, DNA, and RNA can be incorporated into electrospun scaffolds. Suspensions containing living cells have even been electrospun successfully. The applications of electrospinning in tissue engineering and drug delivery are nearly limitless. This review summarizes the most recent and state of the art work in electrospinning and its uses in tissue engineering and drug delivery.
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              Nanofiber technology: designing the next generation of tissue engineering scaffolds.

              Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that has attempted to utilize a variety of processing methods with synthetic and natural polymers to fabricate scaffolds for the regeneration of tissues and organs. The study of structure-function relationships in both normal and pathological tissues has been coupled with the development of biologically active substitutes or engineered materials. The fibrillar collagens, types I, II, and III, are the most abundant natural polymers in the body and are found throughout the interstitial spaces where they function to impart overall structural integrity and strength to tissues. The collagen structures, referred to as extracellular matrix (ECM), provide the cells with the appropriate biological environment for embryologic development, organogenesis, cell growth, and wound repair. In the native tissues, the structural ECM proteins range in diameter from 50 to 500 nm. In order to create scaffolds or ECM analogues, which are truly biomimicking at this scale, one must employ nanotechnology. Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to a variety of approaches for the development of engineered ECM analogues. To date, three processing techniques (self-assembly, phase separation, and electrospinning) have evolved to allow the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds. With these advances, the long-awaited and much anticipated construction of a truly "biomimicking" or "ideal" tissue engineered environment, or scaffold, for a variety of tissues is now highly feasible. This review will discuss the three primary technologies (with a focus on electrospinning) available to create tissue engineering scaffolds that are capable of mimicking native tissue, as well as explore the wide array of materials investigated for use in scaffolds.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Membranes (Basel)
                Membranes (Basel)
                membranes
                Membranes
                MDPI
                2077-0375
                06 March 2018
                March 2018
                : 8
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia; awadnrc@ 123456gmail.com (N.K.A.); ymorsi@ 123456swin.edu.au (Y.S.M.)
                [2 ]Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia; haitao.niu@ 123456deakin.edu.au (H.N.); usman.ali@ 123456bzu.edu.pk (U.A.)
                [3 ]Electrochemistry and Corrosion Laboratory, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo 12422, Egypt
                [4 ]College of Textile Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: tong.lin@ 123456deakin.edu.au ; Tel.: +61-3-5227-1245
                Article
                membranes-08-00015
                10.3390/membranes8010015
                5872197
                29509698
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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